PART 97 - AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE
           (current as of December 20, 1994)

Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec.
97.1    Basis and purpose.
97.3    Definitions.
97.5    Station license required.
97.7    Control operator required.
97.9    Operator license.
97.11   Stations aboard ships or aircraft.
97.13   Restrictions on station location.
97.15   Station antenna structures.
97.17   Application for new license or reciprocal permit for 
        alien amateur licensee.
97.19   [Reserved]
97.21   Application for a modified or renewed license.
97.23   Mailing address.
97.25   License term.
97.27   FCC modification of station license.
97.29   Replacement license document.

Subpart B--Station Operation Standards
97.101  General standards.
97.103  Station licensee responsibilities.
97.105  Control operator duties.
97.107  Alien control operator privileges.
97.109  Station control.
97.111  Authorized transmissions.
97.113  Prohibited transmissions.
97.115  Third-party communications. 
97.117  International communications.
97.119  Station identification.
97.121  Restricted operation.

Subpart C-- Special Operations
97.201  Auxiliary station.
97.203  Beacon station.
97.205  Repeater station.
97.207  Space station.
97.209  Earth station.
97.211  Space Telecommand station.
97.213  Telecommand of an amateur station.
97.215  Telecommand of model craft.
97.217  Telemetry.
97.219  Message Forwarding System.

Subpart D--Technical Standards
97.301  Authorized frequency bands.
97.303  Frequency sharing requirements.
97.305  Authorized emission types.
97.307  Emission standards.
97.309  RTTY and data emission codes.
97.311  SS emission types.
97.313  Transmitter power standards.
97.315  Type acceptance of external RF power amplifiers.
97.317  Standards for type acceptance of external RF power amplifiers.

Subpart E--Providing Emergency Communications
97.401  Operation during a disaster.
97.403  Safety of life and protection of property.
97.405  Station in distress.
97.407  Radio amateur civil emergency service.

Subpart F--Qualifying Examination Systems
97.501  Qualifying for an amateur operator license.
97.503  Element standards.
97.505  Element credit.
97.507  Preparing an examination.
97.509  Administering VE requirements.
97.511  Examinee conduct.
97.513  [Removed and Reserved]
97.515  [Reserved]
97.517  [Reserved]
97.519  Coordinating examination sessions.
97.521  VEC qualifications.
97.523  Question pools.
97.525  Accrediting VEs.
97.527  Reimbursement for expenses.
Appendix 1 Places Where the Amateur Service is Regulated by the FCC
Appendix 2 VEC Regions


Subpart A--General Provisions

S 97.1  Basis and purpose.
   The rules and regulations in this Part are designed to provide an 
amateur radio service having a fundamental purpose as expressed in the 
following principles:
   (a) Recognition and enhancement of the value of the amateur service to 
the public as a voluntary noncommercial communication service, particularly 
with respect to providing emergency communications.
   (b) Continuation and extension of the amateur's proven ability to 
contribute to the advancement of the radio art.
   (c) Encouragement and improvement of the amateur service through rules 
which provide for advancing skills in both the communications and technical 
phases of the art.
   (d) Expansion of the existing reservoir within the amateur radio service 
of trained operators, technicians, and electronics experts.
   (e) Continuation and extension of the amateur's unique ability to 
enhance international goodwill.

S 97.3  Definitions.
   (a) The definitions of terms used in Part 97 are:
     (1) Amateur operator.  A person holding a written authorization to be 
the control operator of an amateur station.
     (2) Amateur radio services.  The amateur service, the amateur-
satellite service and the radio amateur civil emergency service.
     (3) Amateur-satellite service. A radiocommunication service using 
stations on Earth satellites for the same purpose as those of the amateur 
service.
     (4) Amateur service.  A radiocommunication service for the purpose of 
self-training, intercommunication and technical investigations carried out 
by amateurs, that is, duly authorized persons interested in radio technique 
solely with a personal aim and without pecuniary interest.
     (5) Amateur station.  A station in an amateur radio service consisting 
of the apparatus necessary for carrying on radiocommunications.
     (6) Automatic control.  The use of devices and procedures for control 
of a station when it is transmitting so  that compliance with the FCC Rules 
is achieved without the control  operator being present at a control point.
     (7) Auxiliary station.  An amateur station, other than in a message 
forwarding system, that is transmitting communications point-to-point 
within a system of cooperating amateur stations.
     (8) Bandwidth.  The width of a frequency band outside of which the 
mean power of the transmitted signal is attenuated at least 26 dB below the 
mean power of the transmitted signal within the band.
     (9) Beacon. An amateur station transmitting communications for the 
purposes of observation of propagation and reception or other related 
experimental activities.
     (10) Broadcasting.  Transmissions intended for reception by the 
general public, either direct or relayed.
     (11) Control operator.  An amateur operator designated by the licensee 
of a station to be responsible for the transmissions from that station to 
assure compliance with the FCC Rules.
     (12) Control point. The location at which the control operator 
function is performed.
     (13) CSCE.  Certificate of successful completion of an examination.
     (14) Earth station.  An amateur station located on, or within 50 km of 
the Earth's surface intended for communications with space stations or with 
other Earth stations by means of one or more other objects in space.
     (15) EIC.  Engineer in Charge of an FCC Field Facility.
     (16) External RF Power Amplifier.  A device capable of increasing 
power output when used in conjunction with, but not an integral part of, a 
transmitter.
     (17) External RF power amplifier kit.  A number of electronic parts, 
which, when assembled, is an external RF power amplifier, even if 
additional parts are required to complete assembly.
     (18) FAA.  Federal Aviation Administration.
     (19) FCC.  Federal Communications Commission.
     (20) Frequency coordinator.  An entity, recognized in a local or 
regional area by amateur operators whose stations are eligible to be 
auxiliary or repeater stations, that recommends transmit/receive channels 
and associated operating and technical parameters for such stations in 
order to avoid or minimize potential interference.
     (21) Harmful interference.  Interference which endangers the 
functioning of a radionavigation service or of other safety services or 
seriously degrades, obstructs or repeatedly interrupts a radiocommunication 
service operating in accordance with the Radio Regulations.
     (22) Indicator.  Words, letters or numerals appended to and separated 
>From the call sign during the station identification.
     (23) Information bulletin.  A message directed only to amateur 
operators consisting solely of subject matter of direct interest to the 
amateur service.
     (24) International Morse code.  A dot-dash code as defined in 
International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) 
Recommendation F.1 (1984), Division B, I. Morse Code.
     (25) ITU.  International Telecommunication Union.
     (26) Line A.  Begins at Aberdeen, WA, running by great circle arc to 
the intersection of 48  N, 120  W, thence along parallel 48  N, to the 
intersection of 95  W, thence by great circle arc through the southernmost 
point of Duluth, MN, thence by great circle arc to 45  N, 85  W, thence 
southward along meridian 85  W, to its intersection with parallel 41  N, 
thence along parallel 41  N, to its intersection with meridian 82  W, 
thence by great circle arc through the southernmost point of Bangor, ME, 
thence by great circle arc through the southernmost point of Searsport, ME, 
at which point it terminates.
     (27) Local control.  The use of a control operator who directly 
manipulates the operating adjustments in the station to achieve compliance 
with the FCC Rules.
     (28) Message forwarding system.  A group of amateur stations 
participating in a voluntary, cooperative, interactive arrangement where 
communications are sent from the control operator of an originating station 
to the control operator of one or more destination stations by one or more 
forwarding stations.
     (29) National Radio Quiet Zone.  The area in Maryland, Virginia and 
West Virginia bounded by 39  15' N on the north, 78  30' W on the east, 37  
30' N on the south and 80  30' W on the west.
     (30) Physician. For the purposes of this Part, a person who is 
licensed to practice in a place where the amateur service is regulated by 
the FCC, as either a Doctor of Medicine (MD) or a Doctor of Osteopathy 
(DO). 
     (31) Question pool.  All current examination questions for a 
designated written examination element.
     (32) Question set. A series of examination questions on a given 
examination selected from the question pool.  
     (33) Radio Regulations.  The latest ITU Radio Regulations to which the 
United States is a party.
     (34) RACES (radio amateur civil emergency service).  A radio service 
using amateur stations for civil defense communications during periods of 
local, regional or national civil emergencies.
     (35) Remote control. The use of a control operator who indirectly 
manipulates the operating adjustments in the station through a control link 
to achieve compliance with the FCC Rules.
     (36) Repeater.  An amateur station that simultaneously retransmits the 
transmission of another amateur station on a different channel or channels. 
     (37) Space station.  An amateur station located more than 50 km above 
the Earth's surface.
     (38) Space telemetry. A one-way transmission from a space station of 
measurements made from the measuring instruments in a spacecraft, including 
those relating to the functioning of the spacecraft.
     (39) Spurious emission. An emission, on frequencies outside the 
necessary bandwidth of a transmission, the level of which may be reduced 
without affecting the information being transmitted.
     (40) Telecommand. A one-way transmission to initiate, modify, or 
terminate functions of a device at a distance.
     (41) Telecommand station. An amateur station that transmits 
communications to initiate, modify, or terminate functions of a space 
station.
     (42) Telemetry. A one-way transmission of measurements at a distance 
>From the measuring instrument.
     (43) Third-party communications.  A message from the control operator 
(first party) of an amateur station to another amateur station control 
operator (second party) on behalf of another person (third party).
     (44) VE.  Volunteer examiner.
     (45) VEC.  Volunteer-examiner coordinator.
   (b) The definitions of technical symbols used in this Part are:
     (1) EHF (extremely high frequency).  The frequency range 30-300 GHz.
     (2) HF (high frequency).  The frequency range 3-30 MHz.
     (3) Hz.  Hertz.
     (4) m.  Meters.
     (5) MF (medium frequency).  The frequency range 300-3000 kHz.
     (6) PEP (peak envelope power).  The average power supplied to the 
antenna transmission line by a transmitter during one RF cycle at the crest 
of the modulation envelope taken under normal operating conditions.
     (7) RF.  Radio frequency.
     (8) SHF (super-high frequency). The frequency range 3-30 GHz.
     (9) UHF (ultra-high frequency). The frequency range 300-3000  MHz.
     (10) VHF (very-high frequency). The frequency range 30-300 MHz.
     (11) W.  Watts.
   (c) The following terms are used in this Part to indicate emission 
types.  Refer to S 2.201 of the FCC Rules, Emission, modulation and 
transmission characteristics, for information on emission type designators.
     (1) CW.  International Morse code telegraphy emissions having 
designators with A, C, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1 as the second 
symbol; A or B as the third symbol; and emissions J2A and J2B.
     (2) Data.  Telemetry, telecommand and computer communications 
emissions having designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the first 
symbol; 1 as the second symbol; D as the third symbol; and emission J2D.  
Only a digital code of a type specifically authorized in this Part may be 
transmitted.
     (3) Image.  Facsimile and television emissions having designators with 
A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1, 2 or 3 as the second 
symbol; C or F as the third symbol; and emissions having B as the first 
symbol; 7, 8 or 9 as the second symbol; W as the third symbol.
     (4) MCW. Tone-modulated international Morse code telegraphy emissions 
having designators with A, C, D, F, G, H or R as the first symbol; 2 as the 
second symbol; A or B as the third symbol.
     (5) Phone. Speech and other sound emissions having designators with A, 
C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1, 2 or 3 as the second symbol; 
E as the third symbol.  Also speech emissions having B as the first symbol; 
7, 8 or 9 as the second symbol; E as the third symbol.  MCW for the purpose 
of performing the station identification procedure, or for providing 
telegraphy practice interspersed with speech. Incidental tones for the 
purpose of selective calling or alerting or to control the level of a 
demodulated signal may also be considered phone.
     (6) Pulse. Emissions having designators with K, L, M, P, Q, V or W as 
the first symbol; 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 or X as the second symbol; A, B, C, 
D, E, F, N, W or X as the third symbol.
     (7) RTTY.  Narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy emissions having 
designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1 as the 
second symbol; B as the third symbol; and emission J2B.  Only a digital 
code of a type specifically authorized in this Part may be transmitted.
     (8) SS.  Spread-spectrum emissions using bandwidth-expansion 
modulation emissions having designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as 
the first symbol; X as the second symbol; X as the third symbol.  Only a SS 
emission of a type specifically authorized in this Part may be transmitted.
     (9) Test.  Emissions containing no information having the designators 
with N as the third symbol.  Test does not include pulse emissions with no 
information or modulation unless pulse emissions are also authorized in the 
frequency band.

S 97.5  Station license required.
   (a) The person having physical control of the station apparatus must 
have been granted a station license of the type listed in paragraph (b), or 
hold an unexpired document of the type listed in paragraph (c), before the 
station may transmit on any amateur service frequency from any place that is: 
     (1) Within 50 km of the Earth's surface and at a place where the 
amateur service is regulated by the FCC; 
     (2) Within 50 km of the Earth's surface and aboard any vessel or craft 
that is documented or registered in the United States; or
     (3) More than 50 km above the Earth's surface aboard any craft that is 
documented or registered in the United States. 
   (b) The types of station licenses are: 
     (1) An operator/primary station license. One, but only one, 
operator/primary station license is granted to each person who is qualified 
to be an amateur operator. The primary station license is granted together 
with the amateur operator license. Except for a representative of a foreign 
government, any person who qualifies by examination is eligible to apply 
for an operator/primary station license. The operator/primary station 
license document is printed on FCC Form 660. 
     (2) A club station license. A club station license is granted only to 
the person who is the license trustee designated by an officer of the club. 
The trustee must be a person who has been granted an Amateur Extra, 
Advanced, General, Technician Plus, or Technician operator license. The 
club must be composed of at least two persons and must have a name, a 
document of organization, management, and a primary purpose devoted to 
amateur service activities consistent with this Part. The club station 
license document is printed on FCC Form 660. 
     (3) A military recreation station license. A military recreation 
station license is granted only to the person who is the license custodian 
designated by the official in charge of the United States military 
recreational premises where the station is situated. The person must not be 
a representative of a foreign government. The person need not have been 
granted an amateur operator license. The military recreation station 
license document is printed on FCC Form 660. 
     (4) A RACES station license. A RACES station license is granted only 
to the person who is the license custodian designated by the official 
responsible for the governmental agency served by that civil defense 
organization. The custodian must be the civil defense official responsible 
for coordination of all civil defense activities in the area concerned. The 
custodian must not be a representative of a foreign government. The 
custodian need not have been granted an amateur operator license. The RACES 
station license document is printed on FCC Form 660. 
   (c) The types of documents are: 
     (1) A reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee (FCC Form 610-AL) 
issued to the person by the FCC. 
     (2) An amateur service license issued to the person by the Government 
of Canada. The person must be a Canadian citizen. 
   (d) A person who has been granted a station license of the type listed 
in paragraph (b), or who holds an unexpired document of the type listed in 
paragraph (c), is authorized to use in accordance with the FCC Rules all 
transmitting apparatus under the physical control of the station licensee 
at points where the amateur service is regulated by the FCC. 

S 97.7  Control operator required.
   When transmitting, each amateur station must have a control operator. 
The control operator must be a person who has been granted an amateur 
operator/primary station license, or who holds an unexpired document of the 
following types: 
   (a) A reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee (FCC Form 610-AL) 
issued to the person by the FCC, or
   (b) An amateur service license issued to the person by the Government of 
Canada. The person must be a Canadian citizen. 

S 97.9  Operator license.
   (a) The classes of amateur operator licenses are: Novice, Technician, 
Technician Plus (until such licenses expire, a Technician Class license 
granted before February 14, 1991, is considered a Technician Plus Class 
license), General, Advanced, and Amateur Extra. A person who has been 
granted an operator license is authorized to be the control operator of an 
amateur station with the privileges of the operator class specified on the 
license. 
   (b) A person who has been granted an operator license of Novice, 
Technician, Technician Plus, General, or Advanced class and who has 
properly submitted to the administering VEs an application document, FCC 
Form 610, for an operator license of a higher class, and who holds a CSCE 
indicating that the person has completed the necessary examinations within 
the previous 365 days, is authorized to exercise the rights and privileges 
of the higher operator class until final disposition of the application or 
until 365 days following the passing of the examination, whichever comes 
first. 

S 97.11  Stations aboard ships or aircraft.
   (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or 
aircraft must be approved by the master of the ship or pilot in command of 
the aircraft.
   (b) The station must be separate from and independent of all other radio 
apparatus installed on the ship or aircraft, except a common antenna may be 
shared with a voluntary ship radio installation.  The station's 
transmissions must not cause interference to any other apparatus installed 
on the ship or aircraft.
   (c) The station must not constitute a hazard to the safety of life or 
property.  For a station aboard an aircraft, the apparatus shall not be 
operated while the aircraft is operating under Instrument Flight Rules, as 
defined by the FAA, unless the station has been found to comply with all 
applicable FAA Rules.

S 97.13  Restrictions on station locations.
   (a) Before placing an amateur station on land of environmental 
importance or that is significant in American history, architecture or 
culture, the licensee may be required to take certain actions prescribed by 
S 1.1301 - 1.1319 of the FCC Rules.
   (b) A station within 1600 m (1 mile) of an FCC monitoring facility must 
protect that facility from harmful interference.  Failure to do so could 
result in imposition of operating restrictions upon the amateur station by 
an EIC pursuant to S 97.121 of this Part.  Geographical coordinates of the 
facilities that require protection are listed in Section 0.121(c) of the 
FCC Rules.

S 97.15  Station antenna structures.
   (a) Unless the amateur station licensee has received prior approval from 
the FCC, no antenna structure, including the  radiating elements, tower, 
supports and all appurtenances, may be higher than 61 m (200 feet) above 
ground level at its site.
   (b) Unless the amateur station licensee has received prior approval from 
the FCC, no antenna structure, at an airport or heliport that is available 
for public use and is listed in the Airport Directory of the current 
Airman's Information Manual or in either the Alaska or Pacific Airman's 
Guide and Chart Supplement; or at an airport or heliport under construction 
that is the subject of a notice or proposal on file with the FAA, and 
except for military airports, it is clearly indicated that the airport will 
be available for public use; or at an airport or heliport that is operated 
by the armed forces of the United States; or at a place near any of these 
airports or heliports, may be higher than:
     (1) 1 m above the airport elevation for each 100 m from the nearest 
runway longer than 1 km within 6.1 km of the antenna structure.
     (2) 2 m above the airport elevation for each 100 m from the nearest 
runway shorter than 1 km within 3.1 km of the antenna structure.
     (3) 4 m above the airport elevation for each 100 m from the nearest 
landing pad within 1.5 km of the antenna structure.
   (c) An amateur station antenna structure no higher than 6.1 m (20 feet) 
above ground level at its site or no higher than 6.1 m above any natural 
object or existing manmade structure, other than an antenna structure, is 
exempt from the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this Section.
   (d) Further details as to whether an aeronautical study and/or 
obstruction marking and lighting may be required, and specifications for 
obstruction marking and lighting, are contained in Part 17 of the FCC 
Rules, Construction, Marking, and Lighting of Antenna Structures. To 
request approval to place an antenna structure higher than the limits 
specified in paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this Section, the licensee 
must notify the FAA on FAA Form 7460-1 and the FCC on FCC Form 854.
   (e) Except as otherwise provided herein, a station antenna structure may 
be erected at heights and dimensions sufficient to accommodate amateur 
service communications.  [State and local regulation of a station antenna 
structure must not preclude amateur service communications.  Rather, it 
must reasonably accommodate such communications and must constitute the 
minimum practicable regulation to accomplish the state or local authority's 
legitimate purpose. See PRB-1, 101 FCC 2d 952 (1985) for details.]

S 97.17 Application for new license or reciprocal permit for alien amateur 
licensee.
   (a) Any qualified person is eligible to apply for an amateur service 
license. 
   (b) Each application for a new amateur service license must be made on 
the proper document: 
     (1) FCC Form 610 for a new operator/primary station license; 
     (2) FCC Form 610-A for a reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee; 
and
     (3) FCC Form 610-B for a new amateur service club or military 
recreation station license. 
   (c) Each application for a new operator/primary station license must be 
submitted to the VEs administering the qualifying examination. 
   (d) Any eligible person may apply for a reciprocal permit for alien 
amateur licensee. The application document, FCC Form 610-A, must be 
submitted to the FCC, 1270 Fairfield Road, Gettysburg, PA  17325-7245. 
     (1) The person must be a citizen of a country with which the United 
States has arrangements to grant reciprocal operating permits to visiting 
alien amateur operators is eligible to apply for reciprocal permit for 
alien amateur licensee. 
     (2) The person must be a citizen of the same country that issued the 
amateur service license. 
     (3) No person who is a citizen of the United States, regardless of any 
other citizenship also held, is eligible for a reciprocal permit for alien 
amateur licensee. 
     (4) No person who has been granted an amateur operator license is 
eligible for a reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee. 
   (e) No person shall obtain or attempt to obtain, or assist another 
person to obtain or attempt to obtain, an amateur service license or 
reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee by fraudulent means. 
   (f) One unique call sign will be shown on the license of each new 
primary station. The call sign will be selected by the sequential call sign 
system. 
   (g) No new license for a club, military recreation, or RACES station 
will be granted. 

S 97.19  [Reserved]

S 97.21 Application for a modified or renewed license.
   (a) A person who has been granted an amateur station license that has 
not expired: 
     (1) Must apply for a modification of the license as necessary to show 
the correct mailing address, licensee name, club name, license trustee 
name, or license custodian name. The application document must be submitted 
to: FCC, 1270 Fairfield Road, Gettysburg, PA  17325-7245. For an 
operator/primary station license, the application must be made on FCC Form 
610. For a club, military recreation, or RACES station license, the 
application must be made on FCC Form 610-B. 
     (2) May apply for a modification of the license to show a higher 
operator class. The application must be made on FCC Form 610 and must be 
submitted to the VEs administering the qualifying examination. 
     (3) May apply for renewal of the license for another term. (The FCC 
may mail to the licensee a FCC Form 610-R that may be used for this 
purpose.) The application may be made on the FCC Form 610-R if it is 
received from the FCC. If the Form 610-R is not received from the FCC at 
least 30 days before the expiration of the license, for an operator/primary 
station license, the application may be made on FCC Form 610. For a club, 
military recreation, or RACES station license, the application may be made 
on FCC Form 610-B. The application must be submitted no more than 90 days 
before its expiration to: FCC, 1270 Fairfield Road, Gettysburg, PA  17325-
7245. When the application for renewal of the license has been received by 
the FCC at 1270 Fairfield Road, Gettysburg, PA  17325-7245 prior to the 
license expiration date, the license operating authority is continued until 
the final disposition of the application. 
     (4) May apply for a modification of the license to show a different 
call sign selected by the sequential call sign system. The application 
document must be submitted to: FCC, 1270 Fairfield Road, Gettysburg, PA  
17325-7245. The application must be made on FCC Form 610. This modification 
is not available to club, military recreation, or RACES stations. 
   (b) A person who had been granted an amateur station license, but the 
license has expired, may apply for renewal of the license for another term 
during a 2 year filing grace period. The application document must be 
received by the FCC at 1270 Fairfield Road, Gettysburg, PA  17325-7245 
prior to the end of the grace period. For an operator/primary station 
license, the application must be made on FCC Form 610. For a club, military 
recreation, or RACES station license, the application must be made on FCC 
Form 610-B. Unless and until the license is renewed, no privileges in the 
Part are conferred. 
   (c) Each application for a modified or renewed amateur service license 
must be accompanied by a photocopy (or the original) of the license 
document unless an application for renewal using FCC Form 610-R is being 
made, or unless the original document has been lost, mutilated or 
destroyed. 
   (d) Unless the holder of a station license requests a change in call 
sign, the same call sign will be assigned to the station upon renewal or 
modification of a station license. 
   (e) A reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee cannot be renewed. A 
new reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee may be issued upon proper 
application. 

S 97.23 Mailing address.
   (a) Each application for a license and each application for a reciprocal 
permit for alien amateur licensee must show a mailing address in an area 
where the amateur service is regulated by the FCC and where the licensee or 
permittee can receive mail delivery by the United States Postal Service. 
Each application for a reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee must 
also show the permittee's mailing address in the country of citizenship. 
   (b) When there is a change in the mailing address for a person who has 
been granted an amateur operator/primary station license, the person must 
file a timely application for a modification of the license. Revocation of 
the station license or suspension of the operator license may result when 
correspondence from the FCC is returned as undeliverable because the person 
failed to provide the correct mailing address. 
   (c) When a person who has been granted a reciprocal permit for alien 
amateur licensee changes the mailing address where he or she can receive 
mail delivery by the United States Postal Service, the person must file an 
application for a new permit. Cancellation of the reciprocal permit for 
alien amateur licensee may result when correspondence from the FCC is 
returned as undeliverable because the permittee failed to provide the 
correct mailing address. 

S 97.25 License term.
   (a) An amateur service license is normally granted for a 10-year term. 
   (b) A reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee is normally granted 
for a 1-year term. 

S 97.27 FCC modification of station license.
   (a) The FCC may modify a station license, either for a limited time or 
for the duration of the term thereof, if it determines: 
     (1) That such action will promote the public interest, convenience, 
and necessity; or
     (2) That such action will promote fuller compliance with the 
provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, or of any treaty 
ratified by the United States. 
   (b) When the FCC makes such a determination, it will issue an order of 
modification. The order will not become final until the licensee is 
notified in writing of the proposed action and the grounds and reasons 
therefor. The licensee will be given reasonable opportunity of no less than 
30 days to protest the modification; except that, where safety of life or 
property is involved, a shorter period of notice may be provided. Any 
protest by a licensee of an FCC order of modification will be handled in 
accordance with the provisions of 47 U.S.C. S 316. 

S 97.29 Replacement license document.
   Each person who has been granted an amateur station license or 
reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee whose original license 
document or permit document is lost, mutilated or destroyed must request a 
replacement. The request must be made to: FCC, 1270 Fairfield Road, 
Gettysburg, PA  17325-7245. A statement of how the document  was lost, 
mutilated, or destroyed must be attached to the request. A replacement 
document must bear the same expiration date as the document that it 
replaces. 


Subpart B--Station Operation Standards

S 97.101  General standards. 
   (a) In all respects not specifically covered by FCC Rules each amateur 
station must be operated in accordance with good engineering and good 
amateur practice. 
   (b) Each station licensee and each control operator must cooperate in 
selecting transmitting channels and in making the most effective use of the 
amateur service frequencies.  No frequency will be assigned for the 
exclusive use of any station. 
   (c) At all times and on all frequencies, each control operator must give 
priority to stations providing emergency communications, except to stations 
transmitting communications for training drills and tests in RACES. 
   (d) No amateur operator shall willfully or maliciously interfere with or 
cause interference to any radio communication or signal. 

S 97.103  Station licensee responsibilities. 
   (a) The station licensee is responsible for the proper operation of the 
station in accordance with the FCC Rules.  When the control operator is a 
different amateur operator than the station licensee, both persons are 
equally responsible for proper operation of the station. 
   (b) The station licensee must designate the station control operator.  
The FCC will presume that the station licensee is also the control 
operator, unless documentation to the contrary is in the station records. 
   (c) The station licensee must make the station and the station records 
available for inspection upon request by an FCC representative.  When 
deemed necessary by an EIC to assure compliance with FCC Rules, the station 
licensee must maintain a record of station operations containing such items 
of information as the EIC may require in accord with S 0.314(x)  of the FCC 
Rules. 

S 97.105  Control operator duties. 
   (a) The control operator must ensure the immediate proper operation of 
the station, regardless of the type of control. 
   (b) A station may only be operated in the manner and to the extent 
permitted by the privileges authorized for the class of operator license 
held by the control operator. 

S 97.107  Alien control operator privileges. 
   (a) The privileges available to a control operator holding an amateur 
service license issued by the Government of Canada are: 
     (1) The terms of the Convention Between the United States and Canada 
(TIAS no. 2508)  Relating to the Operation by Citizens of Either Country of 
Certain Radio Equipment or Stations in the Other Country; 
     (2) The operating terms and conditions of the amateur service license 
issued by the Government of Canada; and 
     (3) The applicable provisions of the FCC Rules, but not to exceed the 
control operator privileges of an FCC-issued Amateur Extra Class operator 
license. 
   (b) The privileges available to a control operator holding an FCC-issued 
reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee are: 
     (1) The terms of the agreement between the alien's government and the 
United States; 
     (2) The operating terms and conditions of the amateur service license 
issued by the alien's government; 
     (3) The applicable provisions of the FCC Rules, but not to exceed the 
control operator privileges of an FCC-issued Amateur Extra Class operator 
license; and 
     (4) None, if the holder of the reciprocal permit has obtained an FCC-
issued operator/primary station license. 
   (c) At any time the FCC may, in its discretion, modify, suspend, or 
cancel the amateur service privileges within or over any area where radio 
services are regulated by the FCC of any Canadian amateur service licensee 
or alien reciprocal permittee. 

S 97.109  Station control. 
   (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. 
   (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator 
must be at the control point.  Any station may be locally controlled. 
   (c) When a station is being remotely controlled, the control operator 
must be at the control point. Any station may be remotely controlled.
 (d) When a station is being automatically controlled, the control operator 
need not be at the control point.  Only stations transmitting RTTY or data 
emissions on the 6 m or shorter wavelength bands, and stations specifically 
designated elsewhere in this Part may be automatically controlled.  
Automatic control must cease upon notification by an EIC that the station 
is transmitting improperly or causing harmful interference to other 
stations.  Automatic control must not be resumed without prior approval of 
the EIC.  
   (e) No station may be automatically controlled while transmitting third-
party communications, except a station participating as a forwarding 
station in a message forwarding system.

S 97.111  Authorized transmissions. 
   (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of two-way 
communications: 
     (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with other stations 
in the amateur service, except those in any country whose administration 
has given notice that it objects to such communications.  The FCC will 
issue public notices of current arrangements for international 
communications; 
     (2) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with a station in 
another FCC-regulated service while providing emergency communications; 
     (3) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with a United States 
government station, necessary to providing communications in RACES; and 
     (4) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with a station in a 
service not regulated by the FCC, but authorized by the FCC to communicate 
with amateur stations.  An amateur station may exchange messages with a 
participating United States military station during an Armed Forces Day 
Communications Test. 
   (b) In addition to one-way transmissions specifically authorized 
elsewhere in this Part, an amateur station may transmit the following types 
of one-way communications: 
     (1) Brief transmissions necessary to make adjustments to the station; 
     (2) Brief transmissions necessary to establishing two-way 
communications with other stations; 
     (3) Telecommand;  
     (4) Transmissions necessary to providing emergency communications; 
     (5) Transmissions necessary to assisting persons learning, or 
improving proficiency in, the international Morse code; 
     (6) Transmissions necessary to disseminate information bulletins; 
     (7) Transmissions of telemetry. 

S 97.113  Prohibited transmissions. 
   (a) No amateur station shall transmit:
    (1) Communications specifically prohibited elsewhere in this Part;
    (2) Communications for hire or for material compensation, direct or 
indirect, paid or promised, except as otherwise provided in these rules;
    (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator 
has a pecuniary interest, including communications on behalf of an 
employer. Amateur operators may, however, notify other amateur operators of 
the availability for sale or trade of apparatus normally used in an amateur 
station, provided that such activity is not conducted on a regular basis;
    (4) Music using a phone emission except as specifically provided 
elsewhere in this Section; communications intended to facilitate a criminal 
act; messages in codes or ciphers intended to obscure the meaning thereof, 
except as otherwise provided herein; obscene or indecent words or language; 
or false or deceptive messages, signals or identification;
    (5) Communications, on a regular basis, which could reasonably be 
furnished alternatively through other radio services.
   (b) An amateur station shall not engage in any form of broadcasting, nor 
may an amateur station transmit one-way communications except as 
specifically provided in these rules; nor shall an amateur station engage 
in any activity related to program production or news gathering for 
broadcasting purposes, except that communications directly related to the 
immediate safety of human life or the protection of property may be 
provided by amateur stations to broadcasters for dissemination to the 
public where no other means of communication is reasonably available before 
or at the time of the event.
   (c) A control operator may accept compensation as an incident of a 
teaching position during periods of time when an amateur station is used by 
that teacher as a part of classroom instruction at an educational 
institution.
   (d) The control operator of a club station may accept compensation for 
the periods of time when the station is transmitting telegraphy practice or 
information bulletins, provided that the station transmits such telegraphy 
practice and bulletins for at least 40 hours per week; schedules operations 
on at least six amateur service MF and HF bands using reasonable measures 
to maximize coverage; where the schedule of normal operating times and 
frequencies is published at least 30 days in advance of the actual 
transmissions; and where the control operator does not accept any direct or 
indirect compensation for any other service as a control operator.
   (e) No station shall retransmit programs or signals emanating from any 
type of radio station other than an amateur station, except propagation and 
weather forecast information intended for use by the general public and 
originated from United States Government stations and communications, 
including incidental music, originating on United States Government 
frequencies between a space shuttle and its associated Earth stations. 
Prior approval for shuttle retransmissions must be obtained from the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Such retransmissions must be 
for the exclusive use of amateur operators. Propagation, weather forecasts, 
and shuttle retransmissions may not be conducted on a regular basis, but 
only occasionally, as an incident of normal amateur radio communications.
   (f) No amateur station, except an auxiliary, repeater or space station, 
may automatically retransmit the radio signals of other amateur stations. 

S 97.115  Third party communications. 
   (a) An amateur station may transmit messages for a third party to: 
     (1) Any station within the jurisdiction of the United States. 
     (2) Any station within the jurisdiction of any foreign government 
whose administration has made arrangements with the United States to allow 
amateur stations to be used for transmitting international communications 
on behalf of third parties.  No station shall transmit messages for a third 
party to any station within the jurisdiction of any foreign government 
whose administration has not made such an arrangement.  This prohibition 
does not apply to a message for any third party who is eligible to be a 
control operator of the station. 
   (b) The third party may participate in stating the message where: 
     (1) The control operator is present at the control point and is 
continuously monitoring and supervising the third party's participation; 
and 
     (2) The third party is not a prior amateur service licensee whose 
license was revoked; suspended for less than the balance of the license 
term and the suspension is still in effect; suspended for the balance of 
the license term and relicensing has not taken place; or surrendered for 
cancellation following notice of revocation, suspension or monetary 
forfeiture proceedings.  The third party may not be the subject of a cease 
and desist order which relates to amateur service operation and which is 
still in effect. 
   (c) At the end of an exchange of international third party 
communications, the station must also transmit in the station 
identification procedure the call sign of the station with which a third 
party message was exchanged. 

S 97.117  International communications. 
   Transmissions to a different country, where permitted, shall be made in 
plain language and shall be limited to messages of a technical nature 
relating to tests, and, to remarks of a personal character for which, by 
reason of their unimportance, recourse to the public telecommunications 
service is not justified.

S 97.119 Station identification. 
   (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, 
must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel at the end 
of each communication, and at least every ten minutes during a 
communication, for the purpose of clearly making the source of the 
transmissions from the station known to those receiving the transmissions.  
No station may transmit unidentified communications or signals, or transmit 
as the station call sign, any call sign not authorized to the station. 
   (b) The call sign must be transmitted with an emission authorized for 
the transmitting channel in one of the following ways: 
     (1) By a CW emission.  When keyed by an automatic device used only for 
identification, the speed must not exceed 20 words per minute; 
     (2) By a phone emission in the English language.  Use of a standard 
phonetic alphabet as an aid for correct station identification is 
encouraged; 
     (3) By a RTTY emission using a specified digital code when all or part 
of the communications are transmitted by a RTTY or data emission; 
     (4) By an image emission conforming to the applicable transmission 
standards, either color or monochrome, of S 73.682(a) of the FCC Rules when 
all or part of the communications are transmitted in the same image 
emission; or 
     (5) By a CW or phone emission during SS emission transmission on a 
narrow bandwidth frequency segment. Alternatively, by the changing of one 
or more parameters of the emission so that a conventional CW or phone 
emission receiver can be used to determine the station call sign. 
   (c) An indicator may be included with the call sign.  It must be 
separated from the call sign by the slant mark or by any suitable word that 
denotes the slant mark. If the indicator is self-assigned it must be 
included after the call sign and must not conflict with any other indicator 
specified by the FCC Rules or with any prefix assigned to another country. 
   (d) When the operator license class held by the control operator exceeds 
that of the station licensee, an indicator consisting of the call sign 
assigned to the control operator's station must be included after the call 
sign. 
   (e) When the control operator who is exercising the rights and 
privileges authorized by S 97.9(b) of this Part, an indicator must be 
included after the call sign as follows: 
     (1) For a control operator who has requested a license modification 
>From Novice to Technician Class: KT; 
     (2) For a control operator who has requested a license modification 
>From Novice or Technician Class to General Class: AG; 
     (3) For a control operator who has requested a license modification 
>From Novice, Technician, or General Class operator to Advanced Class: AA; 
or 
     (4) For a control operator who has requested a license modification 
>From Novice, Technician, General, or Advanced Class operator to Amateur 
Extra Class: AE. 
   (f) When the station is transmitting under the authority of a reciprocal 
permit for alien amateur licensee, an indicator consisting of the 
appropriate letter-numeral designating the station location must be 
included before the call sign issued to the station by the licensing 
country.  When the station is transmitting under the authority of an 
amateur service license issued by the Government of Canada, a station 
location indicator must be included after the call sign.  At least once 
during each intercommunication, the identification announcement must 
include the geographical location as nearly as possible by city and state, 
commonwealth or possession. 

S 97.121  Restricted operation. 
   (a) If the operation of an amateur station causes general interference 
to the reception of transmissions from stations operating in the domestic 
broadcast service when receivers of good engineering design, including 
adequate selectivity characteristics, are used to receive such 
transmissions, and this fact is made known to the amateur station licensee, 
the amateur station shall not be operated during the hours from 8 p.m. to 
10:30 p.m., local time, and on Sunday for the additional period from 10:30 
a.m. until 1 p.m., local time, upon the frequency or frequencies used when 
the interference is created. 
   (b) In general, such steps as may be necessary to minimize interference 
to stations operating in other services may be required after investigation 
by the FCC. 


Subpart C--Special Operations

S 97.201  Auxiliary station. 
   (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, 
Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary 
station.  A holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra 
Class operator license may be the control operator of an auxiliary station, 
subject to the privileges of the class of operator license held. 
   (b) An auxiliary station may transmit only on the 1.25 m and shorter 
wavelength frequency bands, except the 222.00-222.15 MHz, 431-433 MHz and 
435-438 MHz segments. 
   (c) Where an auxiliary station causes harmful interference to another 
auxiliary station, the licensees are equally and fully responsible for 
resolving the interference unless one station's operation is recommended by 
a frequency coordinator and the other station's is not.  In that case, the 
licensee of the non-coordinated auxiliary station has primary 
responsibility to resolve the interference. 
   (d) An auxiliary station may be automatically controlled.  
   (e) An auxiliary station may transmit one-way communications. 

S 97.203  Beacon station. 
   (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, 
Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon.  A holder 
of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license 
may be the control operator of a beacon, subject to the privileges of the 
class of operator license held. 
   (b) A beacon must not concurrently transmit on more than 1 channel in 
the same amateur service frequency band, from the same station location. 
   (c) The transmitter power of a beacon must not exceed 100 W. 
   (d) A beacon may be automatically controlled while it is transmitting on 
the 28.20-28.30 MHz, 50.06-50.08 MHz, 144.275-144.300 MHz, 222.05-222.06 
MHz, or 432.300-432.400 MHz segments, or on the 33 cm and shorter 
wavelength bands. 
   (e) Before establishing an automatically controlled beacon in the 
National Radio Quiet Zone or before changing the transmitting frequency, 
transmitter power, antenna height or directivity, the station licensee must 
give written notification thereof to the Interference Office, National 
Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944. 
     (1) The notification must include the geographical coordinates of the 
antenna, antenna ground elevation above mean sea level (AMSL) , antenna 
center of radiation above ground level (AGL) , antenna directivity, 
proposed frequency, type of emission, and transmitter power. 
     (2) If an objection to the proposed operation is received by the FCC 
>From the National Radio Astronomy Observatory at Green Bank, Pocahontas 
County, WV, for itself or on behalf of the Naval Research Laboratory at 
Sugar Grove, Pendleton County, WV, within 20 days from the date of 
notification, the FCC will consider all aspects of the problem and take 
whatever action is deemed appropriate. 
   (f) A beacon must cease transmissions upon notification by an EIC that 
the station is operating improperly or causing undue interference to other 
operations.  The beacon may not resume transmitting without prior approval 
of the EIC. 
   (g) A beacon may transmit one-way communications. 

S 97.205  Repeater station. 
   (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, 
Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater.  A 
holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator 
license may be the control operator of a repeater, subject to the 
privileges of the class of operator license held. 
   (b) A repeater may receive and retransmit only on the 10 m and shorter 
wavelength frequency bands except the 28.0-29.5 MHz, 50.0-51.0 MHz, 144.0-
144.5 MHz, 145.5-146.0 MHz, 222.00-222.15 MHz, 431.0-433.0 MHz and 435.0-
438.0 MHz segments. 
   (c) Where the transmissions of a repeater cause harmful interference to 
another repeater, the two station licensees are equally and fully 
responsible for resolving the interference unless the operation of one 
station is recommended by a frequency coordinator and the operation of the 
other station is not.  In that case, the licensee of the noncoordinated 
repeater has primary responsibility to resolve the interference. 
   (d) A repeater may be automatically controlled. 
   (e) Ancillary functions of a repeater that are available to users on the 
input channel are not considered remotely controlled functions of the 
station.  Limiting the use of a repeater to only certain user stations is 
permissible. 
   (f) Before establishing a repeater in the National Radio Quiet Zone or 
before changing the transmitting frequency, transmitter power, antenna 
height or directivity, or the location of an existing repeater, the station 
licensee must give written notification thereof to the Interference Office, 
National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944. 
     (1) The notification must include the geographical coordinates of the 
station antenna, antenna ground elevation above mean sea level (AMSL) , 
antenna center of radiation above ground level (AGL) , antenna directivity, 
proposed frequency, type of emission, and transmitter power. 
     (2) If an objection to the proposed operation is received by the FCC 
>From the National Radio Astronomy Observatory at Green Bank, Pocahontas 
County, WV, for itself or on behalf of the Naval Research Laboratory at 
Sugar Grove, Pendleton County, WV, within 20 days from the date of 
notification, the FCC will consider all aspects of the problem and take 
whatever action is deemed appropriate.
 (g) The control operator of a repeater that retransmits inadvertently 
communiations that violate the rules in this Part is not accountable for 
the violative communications. 

S 97.207  Space station. 
   (a) Any amateur station may be a space station.  A holder of any class 
operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to 
the privileges of the class of operator license held by the control 
operator. 
   (b) A space station must be capable of effecting a cessation of 
transmissions by telecommand whenever such cessation is ordered by the FCC. 
   (c) The following frequency bands and segments are authorized to space 
stations: 
     (1) The 17 m, 15 m, 12 m and 10 m bands, 6 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm and 1 mm 
bands; and 
     (2) The 7.0-7.1 MHz, 14.00-14.25 MHz, 144-146 MHz, 435-438 MHz, 1260-
1270 MHz and 2400-2450 MHz, 3.40-3.41 GHz, 5.83-5.85 GHz, 10.45-10.50 GHz 
and 24.00-24.05 GHz segments. 
   (d) A space station may automatically retransmit the radio signals of 
Earth stations and other space stations. 
   (e) A space station may transmit one-way communications. 
   (f) Space telemetry transmissions may consist of specially coded 
messages intended to facilitate communications or related to the function 
of the spacecraft. 
   (g) The licensee of each space station must give two written, pre-space 
station notifications to the Private Radio Bureau, FCC, Washington, DC  
20554.  Each notification must be in accord with the provisions of Articles 
11 and 13 of the Radio Regulations. 
     (1) The first notification is required no less than 27 months prior to 
initiating space station transmissions and must specify the information 
required by Appendix 4, and Resolution No. 642 of the Radio Regulations. 
     (2) The second notification is required no less than 5 months prior to 
initiating space station transmissions and must specify the information 
required by Appendix 3 and Resolution No. 642 of the Radio Regulations. 
   (h) The licensee of each space station must give a written, in-space 
station notification to the Private Radio Bureau, FCC, Washington, DC  
20554, no later than 7 days following initiation of space station 
transmissions.  The notification must update the information contained in 
the pre-space notification. 
   (i) The licensee of each space station must give a written, post-space 
station notification to the Private Radio Bureau, FCC, Washington, DC  
20554, no later than 3 months after termination of the space station 
transmissions.  When the termination is ordered by the FCC, notification is 
required no later than 24 hours after termination. 

S 97.209  Earth station. 
   (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station.  A holder of any class 
operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject 
to the privileges of the class of operator license held by the control 
operator. 
   (b) The following frequency bands and segments are authorized to Earth 
stations: 
     (1) The 17 m, 15 m, 12 m and 10 m bands, 6 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm and 1 mm 
bands; and 
     (2) The 7.0-7.1 MHz, 14.00-14.25 MHz, 144-146 MHz, 435-438 MHz, 1260-
1270 MHz  and 2400-2450 MHz, 3.40-3.41 GHz, 5.65-5.67 GHz, 10.45-10.50 GHz 
and 24.00-24.05 GHz segments. 

S 97.211  Space Telecommand station. 
   (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is 
eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that space station, 
subject to the privileges of the class of operator license held by the 
control operator. 
   (b) A telecommand station may transmit special codes intended to obscure 
the meaning of telecommand messages to the station in space operation. 
   (c) The following frequency bands and segments are authorized to 
telecommand stations: 
     (1) The 17 m, 15 m, 12 m and 10 m bands, 6 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm and 1 mm 
bands; and 
     (2) The 7.0-7.1 MHz, 14.00-14.25 MHz, 144-146 MHz, 435-438 MHz, 1260-
1270 MHz and 2400-2450 MHz, 3.40-3.41 GHz, 5.65-5.67 GHz, 10.45-10.50 GHz 
and 24.00-24.05 GHz segments. 
   (d) A telecommand station may transmit one-way communications. 

S 97.213  Telecommand of an amateur station. 
   An amateur station on or within 50 km of the Earth's surface may be 
under telecommand where:
 (a) There is a radio or wireline control link between the control point 
and the station sufficient for the control operator to perform his/her 
duties.  If radio, the control link must use an auxiliary station.  A 
control link using a fiber optic cable or another telecommunication service 
is considered wireline. 
   (b) Provisions are incorporated to limit transmission by the station to 
a period of no more than 3 minutes in the event of malfunction in the 
control link. 
   (c) The station is protected against making, willfully or negligently, 
unauthorized transmissions. 
   (d) A photocopy of the station license and a label with the name, 
address, and telephone number of the station licensee and at least one 
designated control operator is posted in a conspicuous place at the station 
location. 

S 97.215  Telecommand of model craft. 
   An amateur station transmitting signals to control a model craft may be 
operated as follows: 
   (a) The station identification procedure is not required for 
transmissions directed only to the model craft, provided that a label 
indicating the station call sign and the station licensee's name and 
address is affixed to the station transmitter. 
   (b) The control signals are not considered codes or ciphers intended to 
obscure the meaning of the communication. 
   (c) The transmitter power must not exceed 1 W. 

S 97.217 Telemetry 
   Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within 50 km of the 
Earth's surface is not considered to be codes or ciphers intended to 
obscure the meaning of communications.

S 97.219 Message forwarding system.
 (a) Any amateur station may participate in a message forwarding system, 
subject to the privileges of the class of operator license held.
 (b) For stations participating in a message forwarding system, the control 
operator of the station originating a message is primarily accountable for 
any violation of the rules in this Part contained in the message.
 (c) Except as noted in paragraph (d) of this section, for stations 
participating in a message forwarding system, the control operators of 
forwarding stations that retransmit inadvertently communications that 
violate the rules in this Part are not accountable for the violative 
communications. They are, however, responsible for discontinuing such 
communications once they become aware of their presence.
 (d) For stations participating in a message forwarding system, the control 
operator of the first forwarding station must:
  (1) Authenticate the identity of the station from which it accepts 
communication on behalf of the system; or
  (2) Accept accountability for any violation of the rules in this Part 
contained in messages it retransmits to the system.


Subpart D--Technical Standards

S 97.301 Authorized frequency bands.
   The following transmitting frequency bands are available to an amateur 
station located within 50 km of the Earth's surface, within the specified 
ITU Region, and outside any area where the amateur service is regulated by 
any authority other than the FCC.
   (a) For a station having a control operator who has been granted an 
operator license of Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced, or 
Amateur Extra Class: 
Wavelength  ITU            ITU           ITU          Sharing requirements 
band        Region 1       Region 2      Region 3     See S 97.303, Paragraph:  
  
VHF         MHz            MHz            MHz   
6 m         --             50-54          50-54           (a)  
2 m         144-146        144-148        144-148         (a)  
1.25 m      --             222-225        --              (a)  
  
UHF         MHz            MHz            MHz  
70 cm       430-440        420-450        420-450         (a), (b), (f)  
33 cm       --             902-928        --              (a), (b), (g)  
23 cm       1240-1300      1240-1300      1240-1300       (h), (i)  
13 cm       2300-2310      2300-2310      2300-2310       (a), (b), (j)  
-do-        2390-2450      2390-2450      2390-2450       (a), (b), (j)  
  
SHF         GHz            GHz            GHz  
9 cm        --             3.3-3.5        3.3-3.5         (a), (b), (k), (l) 
5 cm        5.650-5.850    5.650-5.925    5.650-5.850     (a), (b), (m) 
3 cm        10.00-10.50    10.00-10.50    10.00-10.50     (b), (c), (i), (n) 
1.2 cm      24.00-24.25    24.00-24.25    24.00-24.25     (a), (b), (h), (o) 
  
EHF         GHz            GHz            GHz  
6 mm        47.0-47.2      47.0-47.2      47.0-47.2  
4 mm        75.5-81.0      75.5-81.0      75.5-81.0       (b), (c), (h) 
2.5 mm      119.98-120.02  119.98-120.02  119.98-120.02   (k), (p) 
2 mm        142-149        142-149        142-149         (b), (c), (h), (k) 
1 mm        241-250        241-250        241-250         (b), (c), (h), (q) 
--          above 300      above 300      above 300       (k)  

   (b) For a station having a control operator who has been granted an 
operator license of Amateur Extra Class: 
Wavelength  ITU            ITU            ITU         Sharing requirements  
band        Region 1       Region 2       Region 3    See S 97.303, Paragraph: 
  
MF          kHz            kHz            kHz  
160 m       1810-1850      1800-2000      1800-2000       (a), (b), (c)  
  
HF          MHz            MHz            MHz  
80 m        3.50-3.75      3.50-3.75      3.50-3.75       (a)  
75 m        3.75-3.80      3.75-4.00      3.75-3.90       (a)  
40 m        7.0-7.1        7.0-7.3        7.0-7.1         (a)  
30 m        10.10-10.15    10.10-10.15    10.10-10.15     (d)  
20 m        14.00-14.35    14.00-14.35    14.00-14.35  
17 m        18.068-18.168  18.068-18.168  18.068-18.168  
15 m        21.00-21.45    21.00-21.45    21.00-21.45  
12 m        24.89-24.99    24.89-24.99    24.89-24.99  
10 m        28.0-29.7      28.0-29.7      28.0-29.7  
  
   (c) For a station having a control operator who has been granted an 
operator license of Advanced Class: 
Wavelength  ITU            ITU            ITU         Sharing requirements  
band        Region 1       Region 2       Region 3    See S 97.303, Paragraph: 
  
MF          kHz            kHz            kHz   
160 m       1810-1850      1800-2000      1800-2000       (a), (b), (c)  
  
HF          MHz            MHz            MHz  
80 m        3.525-3.750    3.525-3.750    3.525-3.750     (a)  
75 m        3.775-3.800    3.775-4.000    3.775-3.900     (a)  
40 m        7.025-7.100    7.025-7.300    7.025-7.100     (a)  
30 m        10.10-10.15    10.10-10.15    10.10-10.15     (d)  
20 m        14.025-14.150  14.025-14.150  14.025-14.150  
-do-        14.175-14.350  14.175-14.350  14.175-14.350  
17 m        18.068-18.168  18.068-18.168  18.068-18.168  
15 m        21.025-21.200  21.025-21.200  21.025-21.200  
-do-        21.225-21.450  21.225-21.450  21.225-21.450  
12 m        24.89-24.99    24.89-24.99    24.89-24.99  
10 m        28.0-29.7      28.0-29.7      28.0-29.7  
  
   (d) For a station having a control operator who has been granted an 
operator license of General Class: 
Wavelength  ITU            ITU            ITU         Sharing requirements  
band        Region 1       Region 2       Region 3    See S 97.303, Paragraph: 
  
MF          kHz            kHz            kHz  
160 m       1810-1850      1800-2000      1800-2000       (a), (b), (c)  
  
HF          MHz            MHz            MHz  
80 m        3.525-3.750    3.525-3.750    3.525-3.750     (a)  
75 m        --             3.85-4.00      3.85-3.90       (a)  
40 m        7.025-7.100    7.025-7.150    7.025-7.100     (a)  
-do-        --             7.225-7.300    --              (a)  
30 m        10.10-10.15    10.10-10.15    10.10-10.15     (d)  
20 m        14.025-14.150  14.025-14.150  14.025-14.150  
-do-        14.225-14.350  14.225-14.350  14.225-14.350  
17 m        18.068-18.168  18.068-18.168  18.068-18.168  
15 m        21.025-21.200  21.025-21.200  21.025-21.200  
-do-        21.30-21.45    21.30-21.45    21.30-21.45  
12 m        24.89-24.99    24.89-24.99    24.89-24.99  
10 m        28.0-29.7      28.0-29.7      28.0-29.7  
  
   (e) For a station having a control operator who has been granted an 
operator license of Novice or Technician Plus Class: 
Wavelength  ITU            ITU            ITU         Sharing requirements  
band        Region 1       Region 2       Region 3    See S 97.303, Paragraph:  
  
HF          MHz            MHz            MHz  
80 m        3.675-3.725    3.675-3.725    3.675-3.725     (a)  
40 m        7.050-7.075    7.10-7.15      7.050-7.075     (a)  
15 m        21.10-21.20    21.10-21.20    21.10-21.20  
10 m        28.1-28.5      28.1-28.5      28.1-28.5  
  
   (f) For a station having a control operator who has been granted an 
operator license of  Novice Class: 
Wavelength  ITU            ITU            ITU         Sharing requirements  
band        Region 1       Region 2       Region 3    See S 97.303, Paragraph:  
  
VHF         MHz            MHz            MHz   
1.25 m      --             222-225        --              (a)  
  
UHF         MHz            MHz            MHz  
23 cm       1270-1295      1270-1295      1270-1295       (h), (I)  
  
S 97.303 Frequency sharing requirements.
   The following is a summary of the frequency sharing requirements that 
apply to amateur station transmissions on the frequency bands specified in 
S 97.301 of this Part. (For each ITU Region, each frequency band allocated 
to the amateur service is designated as either a secondary service or a 
primary service. A station in a secondary service must not cause harmful 
interference to, and must accept interference from, stations in a primary 
service. See SS 2.105 and 2.106 of the FCC Rules, United States Table of 
Frequency Allocations for complete requirements.)
   (a) Where, in adjacent ITU Regions or Subregions, a band of frequencies 
is allocated to different services of the same category, the basic 
priniciple is the equality of right to operate. The stations of each 
service in one region must operate so as not to cause harmful interference 
to services in the other Regions or Subregions. (See ITU Radio Regulations, 
No. 346 (Geneva, 1979).)
   (b) No amateur station transmitting in the 1900-2000 kHz segment, the 70 
cm band, the 33 cm band, the 13 cm band, the 9 cm band, the 5 cm band, the 
3 cm band, the 24.05-24.25 GHz segment, the 76-81 GHz segment, the 144-149 
GHz segment and the 241-248 GHz segment shall cause harmful interference 
to, nor is protected from interference due to the operation of, the 
Government radiolocation service. 
   (c) No amateur station transmitting in the 1900-2000 kHz segment, the 3 
cm band, the 76-81 GHz segment, the 144-149 GHz segment and the 241-248 GHz 
segment shall cause harmful interference to, nor is protected from 
interference due to the operation of, stations in the non-Government 
radiolocation service.
   (d) No amateur station transmitting in the 30 meter band shall cause 
harmful interference to stations authorized by other nations in the fixed 
service. The licensee of the amateur station must make all necessary 
adjustments, including termination of transmissions, if harmful 
interference is caused.
   (e) Reserved
   (f) In the 70 cm band:
     (1) No amateur station shall transmit from north of Line A in the 420-
430 MHz segment.
     (2) The 420-430 MHz segment is allocated to the amateur service in the 
United States on a secondary basis, and is allocated in the fixed and 
mobile (except aeronautical mobile) services in the International Table of 
allocations on a primary basis. No amateur station transmitting in this 
band shall cause harmful interference to, nor is protected from 
interference due to the operation of, stations authorized by other nations 
in the fixed and mobile (except aeronautical mobile) services.
     (3) The 430-440 MHz segment is allocated to the amateur service on a 
secondary basis in ITU Regions 2 and 3. No amateur station transmitting in 
this band in ITU Regions 2 and 3 shall cause harmful interference to, nor 
is protected from interference due to the operation of, stations authorized 
by other nations in the radiolocation service. In ITU Region 1, the 430-440 
MHz segment is allocated to the amateur service on a co-primary basis with 
the radiolocation service. As between these two services in this band in 
ITU Region 1, the basic principle that applies is the equality of right to 
operate. Amateur stations authorized by the United States and radiolocation 
stations authorized by other nations in ITU Region 1 shall operate so as 
not to cause harmful interference to each other.
     (4) No amateur station transmitting in the 449.75-450.25 MHz segment 
shall cause interference to, nor is protected from interference due to the 
operation of stations in, the space operation service and the space 
research service or Government or non-Government stations for space 
telecommand.
   (g) In the 33 cm band:
     (1) No amateur station shall transmit from within the States of 
Colorado and Wyoming, bounded on the south by latitude 39  N, on the north 
by latitude 42  N, on the east by longitude 105  W, and on the west by 
longitude 180  W.1 This band is allocated on a secondary basis to the 
amateur service subject to not causing harmful interference to, and not 
receiving protection from any interference due to the operation of, 
industrial, scientific and medical devices, automatic vehicle monitoring 
systems or Government stations authorized in this band.
     (2) No amateur station shall transmit from those portions of the States of 
Texas and New Mexico bounded on the south by latitude 31  41' N, on the north by 
latitude 34  30' N, on the east by longitude 104  11' W, and on the west by 
longitude 107  30' W. 
   (h) No amateur station transmitting in the 23 cm band, the 3 cm band, 
the 24.05-24.25 GHz segment, the 76-81 GHz segment, the 144-149 GHz segment 
and the 241-248 GHz segment shall cause harmful interference to, nor is 
protected from interference due to the operation of, stations authorized by 
other nations in the radiolocation service.
   (i) In the 1240-1260 MHz segment, no amateur station shall cause harmful 
interference to, nor is protected from interference due to the operation 
of, stations in the radionavigation-satellite service, the aeronautical 
radionavigation service, or the radiolocation service.
   (j) In the 13 cm band:
     (1) The amateur service is allocated on a secondary basis in all ITU 
Regions. In ITU Region 1, no amateur station shall cause harmful 
interference to, and is not protected from interference due to the 
operation of, stations authorized by other nations in the fixed service. In 
ITU Regions 2 and 3, no station shall cause harmful interference to, and is 
not protected from interference due to the operation of, stations 
authorized by other nations in the fixed, mobile and radiolocation 
services.
     (2) In the United States, the 2300-2310 MHz segment is allocated to 
the amateur service on a co-secondary basis with the Government fixed and 
mobile services. In this segment, the fixed and mobile services must not 
cause harmful interference to the amateur service. No amateur station 
transmitting in the 2400-2450 MHz segment is protected from interference 
due to the operation of industrial, scientific and medical devices on 
2450 MHz.
   (k) No amateur station transmitting in the 3.332-3.339 GHz and 3.3458-
3525 GHz segments, the 2.5 mm band, the 144.68-144.98 GHz, 145.45-145.75 
GHz and 146.82-147.12 GHz segments and the 343-348 GHz segment shall cause 
harmful interference to stations in the radio astronomy service. No amateur 
station transmitting in the 300-302 GHz, 324-326 GHz, 345-347 GHz, 363-365 
GHz and 379-381 GHz segments shall cause harmful interference to stations 
in the space research service (passive) or Earth exploration-satellite 
service (passive).
   (l) In the 9 cm band:
     (1) In ITU Regions 2 and 3, the band is allocated to the amateur 
service on a secondary basis.
     (2) In the United States, the band is allocated to the amateur service 
on a co-secondary basis with the non-Government radiolocation service.
     (3) In the 3.3-3.4 GHz segment, no amateur station shall cause harmful 
interference to, nor is protected from interference due to the operation 
of, stations authorized by other nations in the fixed and fixed-satellite 
service.
     (4) In the 3.4-3.5 GHz segment, no amateur station shall cause harmful 
interference to, nor is protected from interference due to the operation 
of, stations authorized by other nations in the fixed and fixed-satellite 
service.
   (m) In the 5 cm band:
     (1) In the 5.650-5.725 GHz segment, the amateur service is allocated 
in all ITU Regions on a co-secondary basis with the space research (deep 
space) service.
     (2) In the 5.725-5.850 GHz segment, the amateur service is allocated 
in all ITU Regions on a secondary basis. No amateur station shall cause 
harmful interference to, nor is protected from interference due to the 
operation of, stations authorized by other nations in the fixed-satellite 
service in ITU Region 1.
     (3) No amateur station transmitting in the 5.725-5.875 GHz segment is 
protected from interference due to the operation of industrial, scientific 
and medical devices operating on 5.8 GHz.
     (4) In the 5.650-5.850 GHz segment, no amateur station shall cause 
harmful interference to, nor is protected from interference due to the 
operation of, stations authorized by other nations in the radiolocation 
service. 
     (5) In the 5.850-5.925 GHz segment, the amateur service is allocated 
in ITU Region 2 on a co-secondary basis with the radiolocation service. In 
the United States, the segment is allocated to the amateur service on a 
secondary basis to the non-Government fixed-satellite service. No amateur 
station shall cause harmful interference to, nor is protected from 
interference due to the operation of, stations authorized by other nations 
in the fixed, fixed-satellite and mobile services. No amateur station shall 
cause harmful interference to, nor is protected from interference due to 
the operation of, stations in the non-Government fixed-satellite service.
   (n) In the 3 cm band:
     (1) In the United States, the 3 cm band is allocated to the amateur 
service on a co-secondary basis with the non-government radiolocation 
service.
     (2) In the 10.00-10.45 GHz segment in ITU Regions 1 and 3, no amateur 
station shall cause interference to, nor is protected from interference due 
to the operation of, stations authorized by other nations in the fixed and 
mobile services.
   (o) No amateur station transmitting in the 1.2 cm band is protected from 
interference due to the operation of industrial, scientific and medical 
devices on 24.125 GHz. In the United States, the 24.05-24.25 GHz segment is 
allocated to the amateur service on a co-secondary basis with the non-
government radiolocation and Government and non-government Earth 
exploration-satellite (active) services. 
   (p) The 2.5 mm band is allocated to the amateur service on a secondary 
basis. No amateur station transmitting in this band shall cause harmful 
interference to, nor is protected from interference due to the operation 
of, stations in the fixed, inter-satellite and mobile services. 
   (q) No amateur station transmitting in the 244-246 GHz segment of the 1 
mm band is protected from interference due to the operation of industrial, 
scientific and medical devices on 245 GHz.

S 97.305 Authorized emission types.
   (a) An amateur station may transmit a CW emission on any frequency 
authorized to the control operator. 
   (b) A station may transmit a test emission on any frequency authorized 
to the control operator for brief periods for experimental purposes, except 
that no pulse modulation emission may be transmitted on any frequency where 
pulse is not specifically authorized.
(c) A station may transmit the following emission types on the frequencies  
indicated, as authorized to the control operator, subject to the standards  
specified in S 97.307(f) of this part.  
Wavelength   Frequencies        Emission Types       Standards See  
band         Authorized                              S97.307(f), paragraph: 
  
MF:  
160 m        Entire band        RTTY, data            (3)  
-do-         -do-               Phone, image          (1), (2)  
  
HF:  
80 m         Entire band        RTTY, data            (3), (9)  
75 m         Entire band        Phone, image          (1), (2)  
40 m         7.000-7.100 MHz    RTTY, data            (3), (9)  
-do-         7.075-7.100 MHz    Phone, image          (1), (2), (9), (11)  
-do-         7.100-7.150 MHz    RTTY, data            (3), (9)  
-do-         7.150-7.300 MHz    Phone, image          (1), (2)  
30 m         Entire band        RTTY, data            (3)  
20 m         14.00-14.15 MHz    RTTY, data            (3)  
-do-         14.15-14.35 MHz    Phone, image          (1), (2)  
17 m         18.068-18.110 MHz  RTTY, data            (3)  
-do-         18.110-18.168 MHz  Phone, image          (1), (2)  
15 m         21.0-21.2 MHz      RTTY, data            (3), (9)  
-do-         21.20-21.45 MHz    Phone, image          (1), (2)  
12 m         24.89-24.93 MHz    RTTY, data            (3)  
-do-         24.93-24.99 MHz    Phone, image          (1), (2)  
10 m         28.0-28.3 MHz      RTTY, data            (4)  
-do-         28.3-28.5 MHz      Phone, image          (1), (2), (10)  
-do-         28.5-29.0 MHz      Phone, image          (1), (2)  
-do-         29.0-29.7 MHz      Phone, image          (2)  
  
VHF:  
6 m          50.1-51.0 MHz      RTTY, data            (5)  
-do-        -do-                MCW, phone, image     (2)   
-do-         51.0-54.0 MHz      RTTY, data, test      (5), (8)  
-do-         -do-               MCW, phone, image     (2)  
2 m          144.1-148.0 MHz    RTTY, data, test      (5), (8)  
-do-         -do-               MCW, phone, image     (2)  
1.25 m       Entire band        RTTY, data, test      (6), (8)  
-do-        -do-                MCW, phone, image     (2)  
  
UHF:  
70 cm       Entire band         MCW, phone, image,   
                                RTTY, data, SS, test  (6), (8)  
33 cm       Entire band         MCW, phone, image,  
                                RTTY, data, SS, test,  
                                pulse                 (7), (8), (12)  
23 cm       Entire band         MCW, phone, image,  
                                RTTY, data, SS, test  (7), (8), (12)  
13 cm       Entire band         MCW, phone, image,  
                                RTTY, data, SS,  
                                test, pulse           (7), (8), (12)  
  
SHF:  
9 cm        Entire band         MCW, phone, image,  
                                RTTY, data, SS,  
                                test, pulse           (7), (8), (12)  
5 cm        Entire band         MCW, phone, image,  
                                RTTY, data, SS,  
                                test, pulse           (7), (8), (12)  
3 cm        Entire band         MCW, phone, image,  
                                RTTY, data, SS, test  (7), (8), (12)  
1.2 cm      Entire band         MCW, phone, image,  
                                RTTY, data, SS,  
                                test, pulse           (7), (8), (12)  
  
EHF:  
6 mm        Entire band         MCW, phone, image,  
                                RTTY, data, SS,  
                                test, pulse           (7), (8), (12)  
4 mm        Entire band         MCW, phone, image,  
                                RTTY, data, SS,  
                                test, pulse           (7), (8), (12)  
2.5 mm      Entire band         MCW, phone, image,  
                                RTTY, data, SS,  
                                test, pulse           (7), (8), (12)  
2 mm        Entire band         MCW, phone, image,  
                                RTTY, data, SS,  
                                test, pulse           (7), (8), (12)  
1 mm        Entire band         MCW, phone, image,  
                                RTTY, data, SS,  
                                test, pulse           (7), (8), (12)  
--          Above 300 GHz       MCW, phone, image,  
                                RTTY, data, SS,  
                                test, pulse           (7), (8), (12)  
 
S 97.307 Emission standards.
   (a) No amateur station transmission shall occupy more bandwidth than 
necessary for the information rate and emission type being transmitted, in 
accordance with good amateur practice.
   (b) Emissions resulting from modulation must be confined to the band or 
segment available to the control operator. Emissions outside the necessary 
bandwidth must not cause splatter or keyclick interference to operations on 
adjacent frequencies.
   (c) All spurious emissions from a station transmitter must be reduced to 
the greatest extent practicable. If any spurious emission, including 
chassis or power line radiation, causes harmful interference to the 
reception of another radio station, the licensee of the interfering amateur 
station is required to take steps to eliminate the interference, in 
accordance with good engineering practice.
   (d) The mean power of any spurious emission from a station transmitter 
or external RF power amplifier transmitting on a frequency below 30 MHz 
must not exceed 50 mW and must be at least 40 dB below the mean power of 
the fundamental emission. For a transmitter of mean power less than 5 W, 
the attenuation must be at least 30 dB. A transmitter built before April 
15, 1977, or first marketed before January 1, 1978, is exempt from this 
requirement.
   (e) The mean power of any spurious emission from a station transmitter 
or external RF power amplifier transmitting on a frequency between 30-225 
MHz must be at least 60 dB below the mean power of the fundamental. For a 
transmitter having a mean power of 25 W or less, the mean power of any 
spurious emission supplied to the antenna transmission line must not exceed 
25 uW and must be at least 40 dB below the mean power of the fundamental 
emission, but need not be reduced below the power of 10 uW. A transmitter 
built before April 15, 1977, or first marketed before January 1, 1978, is 
exempt from this requirement.
   (f) The following standards and limitations apply to transmissions on 
the frequencies specified in S 97.305(c) of this Part.
     (1) No angle-modulated emission may have a modulation index greater 
than 1 at the highest modulation frequency.
     (2) No non-phone emission shall exceed the bandwidth of a 
communications quality phone emission of the same modulation type. The 
total bandwidth of an independent sideband emission (having B as the first 
symbol), or a multiplexed image and phone emission, shall not exceed that 
of a communications quality A3E emission.
     (3) Only a RTTY or data emission using a specified digital code listed 
in  S 97.309(a) of this Part may be transmitted. The symbol rate must not 
exceed 300 bauds, or for frequency-shift keying, the frequency shift 
between mark and space must not exceed 1 kHz.
     (4) Only a RTTY or data emission using a specified digital code listed 
in  S 97.309(a) of this Part may be transmitted. The symbol rate must not 
exceed 1200 bauds. For frequency-shift keying, the frequency shift between 
mark and space must not exceed 1 kHz.
     (5) A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using a specified digital 
code listed in  S 97.309(a) of this Part may be transmitted. The symbol 
rate must not exceed 19.6 kilobauds.  A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission 
using an unspecified digital code under the limitations listed in S 
97.309(b) of this Part also may be transmitted. The authorized bandwidth is 
20 kHz.
     (6) A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using a specified digital 
code listed in S 97.309(a) of this Part may be transmitted. The symbol rate 
must not exceed 56 kilobauds. A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using an 
unspecified digital code under the limitations listed in S 97.309(b) of 
this Part also may be transmitted. The authorized bandwidth is 100 kHz.
     (7) A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using a specified digital 
code listed in S 97.309(a) of this Part or an unspecified digital code 
under the limitations listed in  S 97.309(b) of this Part may be 
transmitted.
     (8) A RTTY or data emission having designators with A, B, C, D, E, F, 
G, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1, 2, 7 or 9 as the second symbol; and D 
or W as the third symbol is also authorized.
     (9) A station having a control operator holding a Novice or Technician 
Class operator license may only transmit a CW emission using the 
international Morse code.
     (10) A station having a control operator holding a Novice or 
Technician Class operator license may only transmit a CW emission using the 
international Morse code or phone emissions J3E and R3E.
     (11) Phone and image emissions may be transmitted only by stations 
located in ITU Regions 1 and 3, and by stations located within ITU Region 2 
that are west of 130  West longitude or south of 20  North latitude.
     (12) Emission F8E may be transmitted.

S 97.309 RTTY and data emission codes.
   (a) Where authorized by S 97.305(c) and 97.307(f) of this Part, an 
amateur station may transmit a RTTY or data emission using the following 
specified digital codes:
     (1) The 5-unit, start-stop, International Telegraph Alphabet No. 2, 
code defined in International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative 
Committee Recommendation F.1, Division C (commonly known as Baudot).
     (2) The 7-unit code, specified in International Radio Consultative 
Committee Recommendation CCIR 476-2 (1978), 476-3 (1982), 476-4 (1986) or 
625 (1986) (commonly known as AMTOR).
     (3) The 7-unit code defined in American National Standards Institute 
X3.4-1977 or International Alphabet No. 5 defined in International 
Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee Recommendation T.50 or in 
International Organization for Standardization, International Standard ISO 
646 (1983), and extensions as provided for in CCITT Recommendation T.61 
(Malaga-Torremolinos, 1984) (commonly known as ASCII).
   (b) Where authorized by S S 97.305(c) and 97.307(f) of this Part, a 
station may transmit a RTTY or data emission using an unspecified digital 
code, except to a station in a country with which the United States does 
not have an agreement permitting the code to be used. RTTY and data 
emissions using unspecified digital codes must not be transmitted for the 
purpose of obscuring the meaning of any communication. When deemed 
necessary by an EIC to assure compliance with the FCC Rules, a station 
must:
     (1) Cease the transmission using the unspecified digital code;
     (2) Restrict transmissions of any digital code to the extent 
instructed;
     (3) Maintain a record, convertible to the original information, of all 
digital communications transmitted.

S 97.311 SS emission types.
   (a) SS emission transmissions by an amateur station are authorized only 
for communications between points within areas where the amateur service is 
regulated by the FCC. SS emission transmissions must not be used for the 
purpose of obscuring the meaning of any communication.
   (b) Stations transmitting SS emission must not cause harmful 
interference to stations employing other authorized emissions, and must 
accept all interference caused by stations employing other authorized 
emissions. For the purposes of this paragraph, unintended triggering of 
carrier operated repeaters is not considered to be harmful interference.
   (c) Only the following types of SS emission transmissions are authorized 
(hybrid SS emission transmissions involving both spreading techniques are 
prohibited):
     (1) Frequency hopping where the carrier of the transmitted signal is 
modulated with unciphered information and changes frequency at fixed 
intervals under the direction of a high speed code sequence. 
     (2) Direct sequence where the information is modulo-2 added to a high 
speed code sequence. The combined information and code are then used to 
modulate the RF carrier. The high speed code sequence dominates the 
modulation function, and is the direct cause of the wide spreading of the 
transmitted signal.
   (d) The only spreading sequences that are authorized are from the output 
of one binary linear feedback shift register (which may be implemented in 
hardware or software).
     (1) Only the following sets of connections may be used:  
        Number of stages       Taps used   
        in shift register      in feedback  
        7                      7, 1.  
        13                     13, 4, 3, and 1.  
        19                     19, 5, 2, and 1.  
     (2) The shift register must not be reset other than by its feedback 
during an individual transmission. The shift register output sequence must 
be used without alteration.
     (3) The output of the last stage of the binary linear feedback shift 
register must be used as follows: 
       (i) For frequency hopping transmissions using x frequencies, n 
consecutive bits from the shift register must be used to select the next 
frequency from a list of frequencies sorted in ascending order. Each 
consecutive frequency must be selected by a consecutive block of n bits. 
(Where n is the smallest integer greater than log2X.)
       (ii) For direct sequence transmissions using m-ary modulation, 
consecutive blocks of log2 m bits from the shift register must be used to 
select the transmitted signal during each interval. 
   (e) The station records must document all SS emission transmissions and 
must be retained for a period of 1 year following the last entry. The 
station records must include sufficient information to enable the FCC, 
using the information contained therein, to demodulate all transmissions. 
The station records must contain at least the following:
     (1) A technical description of the transmitted signal;
     (2) Pertinent parameters describing the transmitted signal including 
the frequency or frequencies of operation and, where applicable, the chip 
rate, the code rate, the spreading function, the transmission protocol(s) 
including the method of achieving synchronization, and the modulation type;
     (3) A general description of the type of information being conveyed 
(voice, text, memory dump, facsimile, television, etc.);
     (4) The method and, if applicable, the frequency or frequencies used 
for station identification; and
     (5) The date of beginning and the date of ending use of each type of 
transmitted signal.
   (f) When deemed necessary by an EIC to assure compliance with this Part, 
a station licensee must:
     (1) Cease SS emission transmissions;
     (2) Restrict SS emission transmissions to the extent instructed; and
     (3) Maintain a record, convertible to the original information (voice, 
text, image, etc.) of all spread spectrum communications transmitted.
   (g) The transmitter power must not exceed 100 W.

S 97.313 Transmitter power standards.
   (a) An amateur station must use the minimum transmitter power necessary 
to carry out the desired communications.
   (b) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 1.5 kW 
PEP. 
   (c) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 200 W PEP 
on:
     (1) The 3.675-3.725 MHz, 7.10-7.15 MHz, 10.10-10.15 MHz and 21.1-21.2 
MHz segments;
     (2) The 28.1-28.5 MHz segment when the control operator is a Novice or 
Technician operator; or
      (3) The 7.050-7.075 MHz segment when the station is within ITU 
Regions 1 or 3.
   (d) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 25 W PEP 
on the VHF 1.25 m band when the control operator is a Novice operator.
   (e) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 5 W PEP 
on the UHF 23 cm band when the control operator is a Novice operator.
   (f) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 50 W PEP 
on the UHF 70 cm band from an area specified in footnote US7 to S 2.106 of 
the FCC Rules, unless expressly authorized by the FCC after mutual 
agreement, on a case-by-case basis, between the EIC of the applicable field 
facility and the military area frequency coordinator at the applicable 
military base. An Earth station or telecommand station, however, may 
transmit on the 435-438 MHz segment with a maximum of 611 W effective 
radiated power (1 kW equivalent isotropically radiated power) without the 
authorization otherwise required. The transmitting antenna elevation angle 
between the lower half-power (3 dB relative to the peak or antenna bore 
sight) point and the horizon must always be greater than 10 .
   (g) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 50 watts 
PEP on the 33 cm band from within 241 km of the boundaries of the White 
Sands Missile Range. Its boundaries are those portions of Texas and New 
Mexico bounded on the south by latitude 31  41' North, on the east by 
longitude 104  11' West, on the north by latitude 34  30' North, and on the 
west by longitude 107  30' West.

S 97.315 Type acceptance of external RF power amplifiers.
   (a) No more than 1 unit of 1 model of an external RF power amplifier 
capable of operation below 144 MHz may be constructed or modified during 
any calendar year by an amateur operator for use at a station without a 
grant of type acceptance. No amplifier capable of operation below 144 MHz 
may be constructed or modified by a non-amateur operator without a grant of 
type acceptance from the FCC.
   (b) Any external RF power amplifier or external RF power amplifier kit 
(see S 2.815 of the FCC Rules), manufactured, imported or modified for use 
in a station or attached at any station must be type accepted for use in 
the amateur service in accordance with Subpart J of Part 2 of the FCC 
Rules. This requirement does not apply if one or more of the following 
conditions are met:
     (1) The amplifier is not capable of operation on frequencies below 144 
MHz. For the purpose of this part, an amplifier will be deemed to be 
incapable of operation below 144 MHz if it is not capable of being easily 
modified to increase its amplification characteristics below 120 MHz and 
either:
       (i) The mean output power of the amplifier decreases, as frequency 
decreases from 144 MHz, to a point where 0 dB or less gain is exhibited at 
120 MHz; or
       (ii) The amplifier is not capable of amplifying signals below 120 
MHz even for brief periods without sustaining permanent damage to its 
amplification circuitry. 
     (2) The amplifier was manufactured before April 28, 1978, and has been 
issued a marketing waiver by the FCC, or the amplifier was purchased before 
April 28, 1978, by an amateur operator for use at that amateur operator's 
station.
     (3) The amplifier was:
       (i) Constructed by the licensee, not from an external RF power 
amplifier kit, for use at the licensee's station; or 
       (ii) Modified by the licensee for use at the licensee's station.
     (4) The amplifier is sold by an amateur operator to another amateur 
operator or to a dealer.
     (5) The amplifier is purchased in used condition by an equipment 
dealer from an amateur operator and the amplifier is further sold to 
another amateur operator for use at that operator's station.
   (c) A list of type accepted equipment may be inspected at FCC 
headquarters in Washington, DC or at any FCC field location. Any external 
RF power amplifier appearing on this list as type accepted for use in the 
amateur service may be marketed for use in the amateur service.

S 97.317 Standards for type acceptance of external RF power amplifiers.
(a) To receive a grant of type acceptance, the amplifier must satisfy the 
spurious emission standards of S 97.307(d) or (e) of this Part, as 
applicable, when the amplifier is:
     (1) Operated at its full output power;
     (2) Placed in the "standby" or "off" positions, but still connected to 
the transmitter; and
     (3) Driven with at least 50 W mean RF input power (unless higher drive 
level is specified).
   (b) To receive a grant of type acceptance, the amplifier must not be 
capable of operation on any frequency or frequencies between 24 MHz and 35 
MHz. The amplifier will be deemed incapable of such operation if it:
     (1) Exhibits no more than 6 dB gain between 24 MHz and 26 MHz and 
between 28 MHz and 35 MHz. (This gain will be determined by the ratio of 
the input RF driving signal (mean power measurement) to the mean RF output 
power of the amplifier); and
     (2) Exhibits no amplification (0 dB gain) between 26 MHz and 28 MHz.
   (c) Type acceptance may be denied when denial would prevent the use of 
these amplifiers in services other than the amateur service. The following 
features will result in dismissal or denial of an application for the type 
acceptance:
     (1) Any accessible wiring which, when altered, would permit operation 
of the amplifier in a manner contrary to the FCC Rules;
     (2) Circuit boards or similar circuitry to facilitate the addition of 
components to change the amplifier's operating characteristics in a manner 
contrary to the FCC Rules;
     (3) Instructions for operation or modification of the amplifier in a 
manner contrary to the FCC Rules;
     (4) Any internal or external controls or adjustments to facilitate 
operation of the amplifier in a manner contrary to the FCC Rules;
     (5) Any internal RF sensing circuitry or any external switch, the 
purpose of which is to place the amplifier in the transmit mode; 
     (6) The incorporation of more gain in the amplifier than is necessary 
to operate in the amateur service; for purposes of this paragraph, the 
amplifier must:
       (i) Not be capable of achieving designed output power when driven 
with less than 40 W mean RF input power;
       (ii) Not be capable of amplifying the input RF driving signal by 
more than 15 dB, unless the amplifier has a designed transmitter power of 
less than 1.5 kW (in such a case, gain must be reduced by the same number 
of dB as the transmitter power relationship to 1.5 kW; This gain limitation 
is determined by the ratio of the input RF driving signal to the RF output 
power of the amplifier where both signals are expressed in peak envelope 
power or mean power); 
       (iii) Not exhibit more gain than permitted by paragraph (c)(6)(ii) 
of this Section when driven by an RF input signal of less than 50 W mean 
power; and
       (iv) Be capable of sustained operation at its designed power level.
     (7) Any attenuation in the input of the amplifier which, when removed 
or modified, would permit the amplifier to function at its designed 
transmitter power when driven by an RF frequency input signal of less than 
50 W mean power; or
     (8) Any other features designed to facilitate operation in a 
telecommunication service other than the Amateur Radio Services, such as 
the Citizens Band (CB) Radio Service.


Subpart E--Providing Emergency Communications

S 97.401  Operation during a disaster. 
   (a) When normal communication systems are overloaded, damaged or 
disrupted because a disaster has occurred, or is likely to occur, in an 
area where the amateur service is regulated by the FCC, an amateur station 
may make transmissions necessary to meet essential communication needs and 
facilitate relief actions.
   (b) When normal communication systems are overloaded, damaged or 
disrupted because a natural disaster has occurred, or is likely to occur, 
in an area where the amateur service is not regulated by the FCC, a station 
assisting in meeting essential communication needs and facilitating relief 
actions may do so only in accord with ITU Resolution No. 640 (Geneva, 1979) 
.  The 80 m, 75 m, 40 m, 30 m, 20 m, 17 m, 15 m, 12 m, and 2 m bands may be 
used for these purposes.
   (c) When a disaster disrupts normal communication systems in a 
particular area, the FCC may declare a temporary state of communication 
emergency.  The declaration will set forth any special conditions and 
special rules to be observed by  stations during the communication 
emergency.  A request for a declaration of a temporary state of emergency 
should be directed to the EIC in the area concerned.
   (d) A station in, or within 92.6 km of, Alaska may transmit emissions 
J3E and R3E on the channel at 5.1675 MHz for emergency communications.  The 
channel must be shared with stations licensed in the Alaska-private fixed 
service.  The transmitter power must not exceed 150 W. 

S 97.403  Safety of life and protection of property.
   No provision of these rules prevents the use by an amateur station of 
any means of radiocommunication at its disposal to provide essential 
communication needs in connection with the immediate safety of human life 
and immediate protection of property when normal communication systems are 
not available.

S 97.405  Station in distress.
   (a) No provision of these rules prevents the use by an amateur station 
in distress of any means at its disposal to attract attention, make known 
its condition and location, and obtain assistance. 
   (b) No provision of these rules prevents the use by a station, in the 
exceptional circumstances described in paragraph (a), of any means of 
radiocommunications at its disposal to assist a station in distress. 

S 97.407  Radio amateur civil emergency service.
   (a) No station may transmit in RACES unless it is an FCC-licensed 
primary, club, or military recreation station and it is certified by a 
civil defense organization as registered with that organization, or it is 
an FCC-licensed RACES station.  No person may be the control operator of a 
RACES station, or may be the control operator of an amateur station 
transmitting in RACES unless that person holds a FCC-issued amateur 
operator license and is certified by a civil defense organization as 
enrolled in that organization.
   (b) The frequency bands and segments and emissions authorized to the control 
operator are available to stations transmitting communications in RACES on a 
shared basis with the amateur service. In the event of an emergency which 
necessitates the invoking of the President's War Emergency Powers under the 
provisions of S 706 of the 
Communications Act of 1934, as amended, 47 U.S.C. S 606, RACES stations and 
amateur stations participating in RACES may only transmit on the following 
frequencies:
     (1) The 1800-1825 kHz, 1975-2000 kHz, 3.50-3.55 MHz, 3.93-3.98 MHz, 
3.984-4.000 MHz, 7.079-7.125 MHz, 7.245-7.255 MHz, 10.10-10.15 MHz, 14.047-
14.053 MHz, 14.22-14.23 MHz, 14.331-14.350 MHz, 21.047-21.053 MHz, 21.228-
21.267 MHz, 28.55-28.75 MHz, 29.237-29.273 MHz, 29.45-29.65 MHz, 50.35-
50.75 MHz, 52-54 MHz, 144.50-145.71 MHz, 146-148 MHz, 2390-2450 MHz 
segments; 
     (2) The 1.25 m, 70 cm and 23 cm bands; and 
     (3) The channels at 3.997 MHz and 53.30 MHz may be used in emergency 
areas when required to make initial contact with a military unit and for 
communications with military stations on matters requiring coordination. 
   (c) A RACES station may only communicate with: 
     (1) Another RACES station; 
     (2) An amateur station registered with a civil defense organization; 
     (3) A United States Government station authorized by the responsible 
agency to communicate with RACES stations; 
     (4) A station in a service regulated by the FCC whenever such 
communication is authorized by the FCC. 
   (d) An amateur station registered with a civil defense organization may 
only communicate with: 
     (1) A RACES station licensed to the civil defense organization with 
which the amateur station is registered; 
     (2) The following stations upon authorization of the responsible civil 
defense official for the organization with which the amateur station is 
registered: 
       (i) A RACES station licensed to another civil defense organization; 
       (ii)  An amateur station registered with the same or another civil 
defense organization; 
       (iii)  A United States Government station authorized by the 
responsible agency to communicate with RACES stations; and 
       (iv)  A station in a service regulated by the FCC whenever such 
communication is authorized by the FCC.
   (e) All communications transmitted in RACES must be specifically 
authorized by the civil defense organization for the area served.  Only 
civil defense communications of the following types may be transmitted:
     (1) Messages concerning impending or actual conditions jeopardizing 
the public safety, or affecting the national defense or security during 
periods of local, regional, or national civil emergencies;
     (2) Messages directly concerning the immediate safety of life of 
individuals, the immediate protection of property, maintenance of law and 
order, alleviation of human suffering and need, and the combating of armed 
attack or sabotage; 
     (3) Messages directly concerning the accumulation and dissemination of 
public information or instructions to the civilian population essential to 
the activities of the civil defense organization or other authorized 
governmental or relief agencies; and
     (4) Communications for RACES training drills and tests necessary to 
ensure the establishment and maintenance of orderly and efficient operation 
of the RACES as ordered by the responsible civil defense organizations 
served.  Such drills and tests may not exceed a total time of 1 hour per 
week.  With the approval of the chief officer for emergency planning the 
applicable State, Commonwealth, District or territory, however, such tests 
and drills may be conducted for a period not to exceed 72 hours no more 
than twice in any calendar year.


Subpart F--Qualifying Examinations Systems

S 97.501  Qualifying for an amateur operator license.
   Each applicant for the grant of a new amateur operator license or for 
the grant of a modified license to show a higher operator class, must pass 
or otherwise receive credit for the examination elements specified for the 
class of operator license sought: 
   (a) Amateur Extra Class operator: Elements 1(C) , 2, 3(A) , 3(B) , 4(A) 
and 4(B); 
   (b) Advanced Class operator: Elements 1(B) or 1(C) , 2, 3(A) , 3(B) and 
4(A); 
   (c) General Class operator: Elements 1(B) or 1(C) , 2, 3(A) and 3(B); 
   (d) Technician Plus Class operator: Elements 1(A) or 1(B) or 1(C), 2, 
and 3(A). 
   (e) Technician Class operator: Elements 2 and 3(A). 
   (f) Novice class operator: Elements 1(A) or 1(B) or 1(C), and 2. 

S 97.503 Element standards. 
   (a) A telegraphy examination must be sufficient to prove that the 
examinee has the ability to send correctly by hand and to receive correctly 
by ear texts in the international Morse code at not less than the 
prescribed speed, using all the letters of the alphabet, numerals 0-9, 
period, comma, question mark, slant mark and prosigns AR, BT and SK. 
     (1) Element 1(A): 5 words per minute; 
     (2) Element 1(B): 13 words per minute; 
     (3) Element 1(C): 20 words per minute. 
   (b) A written examination must be such as to prove that the examinee 
possesses the operational and technical qualifications required to perform 
properly the duties of an amateur service licensee.  Each written 
examination must be comprised of a question set as follows: 
     (1) Element 2: 30 questions concerning the privileges of a Novice 
Class operator license.  The minimum passing score is 22 questions answered 
correctly. 
     (2) Element 3(A): 25 questions concerning the additional privileges of 
a Technician Class operator license.  The minimum passing score is 19 
questions answered correctly. 
     (3) Element 3(B): 25 questions concerning the additional privileges of 
a General Class operator license.  The minimum passing score is 19 
questions answered correctly. 
     (4) Element 4(A): 50 questions concerning the additional privileges of 
an Advanced Class operator license.  The minimum passing score is 37 
questions answered correctly. 
     (5) Element 4(B): 40 questions concerning the additional privileges of 
an Amateur Extra Class operator license.  The minimum passing score is 30 
questions answered correctly. 
   (c) The topics and number of questions required in each question set are 
listed below for the appropriate examination element:
(c) The topics and number of questions required in each question set are 
listed below for the appropriate examination element:
                  Topics                                  Element:
                                                     2  3(A) 3(B) 4(A) 4(B)
 (1) FCC Rules for the amateur radio services       10    5    4    6    8 
 (2) Amateur station operating procedures            2    3    3    1    4 
 (3) Radio wave propagation characteristics of 
     amateur service frequency bands                 1    3    3    2    2 
 (4) Amateur radio practices                         4    4    5    4    4 
 (5) Electrical principles as applied to amateur 
     station equipment                               4    2    2   10    6 
 (6) Amateur station equipment circuit 
     components                                      2    2    1    6    4 
 (7) Practical circuits employed in amateur 
     station equipment                               2    1    1   10    4 
 (8) Signals and emissions transmitted by 
     amateur stations                                2    2    2    6    4 
 (9) Amateur station antennas and feed lines         3    3    4    5    4 

S 97.505  Element credit. 
   (a) The administering VEs must give credit as specified below to an 
examinee holding any of the following documents: 
     (1) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period for renewal) 
FCC-granted Advanced Class operator license document: Elements 1(B), 2, 
3(A), 3(B), and 4(A). 
     (2) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period for renewal) 
FCC-granted General Class operator license document: Elements 1(B), 2, 
3(A), and 3(B). 
     (3) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period for renewal) 
FCC-granted Technician Plus Class operator (including a Technician Class 
operator license granted before February 14, 1991) license document: 
Elements 1(A), 2, and 3(A). 
     (4) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period for renewal) 
FCC-granted Technician Class operator license document: Elements 2 and 
3(A). 
     (5) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period for renewal) 
FCC-granted Novice Class operator license document: Elements 1(A) and 2. 
     (6) A CSCE: Each element the CSCE indicates the examinee passed within 
the previous 365 days. 
     (7) An unexpired (or expired for less than 5 years) FCC-issued 
commercial radiotelegraph operator license document or permit: Element 
1(C). 
     (8) An expired or unexpired FCC-issued Technician Class operator 
license document granted before March 21 1987: Element 3(B). 
     (9) An expired or unexpired FCC-issued Technician Class license 
document granted before February 14, 1991: Element 1(A). 
     (10) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period for 
renewal), FCC-granted Novice, Technician Plus (including a Technician Class 
operator license granted before February 14, 1991), General, or Advanced 
Class operator license document, and a FCC Form 610 containing: 
       (i) A physician's certification stating that because the person is 
an individual with a severe handicap, the duration of which will extend for 
more than 365 days beyond the date of the certification, the person is 
unable to pass a 13 or 20 words per minute telegraphy examination; and
       (ii) A release signed by the person permitting the disclosure to the 
FCC of medical information pertaining to the person's handicap: Element 
1(C). 
     (b) No examination credit, except as herein provided, shall be allowed 
on the basis of holding or having held any other license grant or document. 

S 97.507  Preparing an examination. 
   (a) Each telegraphy message and each written question set administered 
to an examinee must be prepared by a VE who has been granted an Amateur 
Extra Class operator license. A telegraphy message or written question set, 
however, may also be prepared for the following elements by a VE who has 
been granted an FCC operator license of the class indicated: 
     (1) Element 3(B): Advanced Class operator. 
     (2) Elements 1(A) and 3(A): Advanced or General Class operator. 
     (3) Element 2: Advanced, General, Technician, or Technician Plus Class 
operator. 
   (b) Each question set administered to an examinee must utilize questions 
taken from the applicable question pool. 
   (c) Each telegraphy message and each written question set administered 
to an examinee for an amateur operator license must be prepared, or 
obtained from a supplier, by the administering VEs according to 
instructions from the coordinating VEC.
   (d) A telegraphy examination must consist of a message sent in the 
international Morse code at no less than the prescribed speed for a minimum 
of 5 minutes.  The message must contain each required telegraphy character 
at least once.  No message known to the examinee may be administered in a 
telegraphy examination.  Each 5 letters of the alphabet must be counted as 
1 word.  Each numeral, punctuation mark and prosign must be counted as 2 
letters of the alphabet. 

S 97.509  Administering VE requirements. 
   (a) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be 
administered by 3 administering VEs at an examination session coordinated 
by a VEC. Before the session, the administering VEs must make a public 
announcement stating the location and time of the session. The number of 
examinees at the session may be limited. 
   (b) Each administering VE must: 
     (1) Be accredited by the coordinating VEC; 
     (2) Be at least 18 years of age; 
     (3) Be a person who has been granted an FCC amateur operator license 
document of the class specified below: 
       (i) Amateur Extra, Advanced, or General Class in order to administer 
a Novice, Technician, or Technician Plus Class operator license 
examination; 
       (ii) Amateur Extra Class in order to administer a General, Advanced, 
or Amateur Extra Class operator license examination. 
     (4) Not be a person whose grant of an amateur station license or 
amateur operator license has ever been revoked or suspended. 
     (5) Not own a significant interest in, or be an employee of, any 
company or other entity that is engaged in the manufacture or distribution 
of equipment used in connection with amateur station transmissions, or in 
the preparation or distribution of any publication used in preparation for 
obtaining amateur operator licenses. (An employee who does not normally 
communicate with that part of an entity engaged in the manufacture or 
distribution of such equipment, or in the preparation or distribution of 
any publication used in preparation for obtaining amateur operator 
licenses, may be an administering VE.) 
   (c) Each administering VE must be present and observing the examinee 
throughout the entire examination. The administering VEs are responsible 
for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The 
administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure 
of the examinee to comply with their instructions. 
   (d) No VE may administer an examination to his or her spouse, children, 
grandchildren, stepchildren, parents, grandparents, stepparents, brothers, 
sisters, stepbrothers, stepsisters, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews, and in-
laws. 
   (e) No VE may administer or certify any examination by fraudulent means 
or for monetary or other consideration including reimbursement in any 
amount in excess of that permitted. Violation of this provision may result 
in the revocation of the grant of the VE's amateur station license and the 
suspension of the grant of the VE's amateur operator license. 
   (f) No examination that has been compromised shall be administered to 
any examinee. Neither the same telegraphy message nor the same question set 
may be re-administered to the same examinee. 
   (g) Passing a telegraphy receiving examination is adequate proof of an 
examinee's ability to both send and receive telegraphy. The administering 
VEs, however, may also include a sending segment in a telegraphy 
examination. 
   (h) Upon completion of each examination element, the administering VEs 
must immediately grade the examinee's answers. The administering VEs are 
responsible for determining the correctness of the examinee's answers. 
   (i) When the examinee is credited for all examination elements required 
for the operator license sought, the administering VEs must certify on the 
examinee's application document that the applicant is qualified for the 
license. 
   (j) When the examinee does not score a passing grade on an examination 
element, the administering VEs must return the application document to the 
examinee and inform the examinee of the grade. 
   (k) The administering VEs must accommodate an examinee whose physical 
disabilities require a special examination procedure. The administering VEs 
may require a physician's certification indicating the nature of the 
disability before determining which, if any, special procedures must be 
used. 
   (l) The administering VEs must issue a CSCE to an examinee who scores a 
passing grade on an examination element. 
   (m) Within 10 days of the administration of a successful examination for 
an amateur operator license, the administering VEs must submit the 
application document to the coordinating VEC. 

S 97.511 Examinee conduct.
   Each examinee must comply with the instructions given by the 
administering VEs. 

S 97.513  [Removed and Reserved]

S 97.515 [Reserved]

S 97.517 [Reserved]

S 97.519  Coordinating examination sessions. 
   (a) A VEC must coordinate the efforts of VEs in preparing and 
administering examinations. 
   (b) At the completion of each examination session, the coordinating VEC 
must collect the FCC Forms 610 documents and test results from the 
administering VEs. Within 10 days of collecting the FCC Forms 610 
documents, the coordinating VEC must screen and, for qualified examinees, 
forward electronically or on diskette the data contained on the FCC Forms 
610 documents, or forward the FCC Form 610 documents to: FCC, 1270 
Fairfield Road, Gettysburg, PA  17325-7245. When the data is forwarded 
electronically, the coordinating VEC must retain the FCC Forms 610 
documents for at least fifteen months and make them available to the FCC 
upon request. 
   (c) Each VEC must make any examination records available to the FCC, upon 
request. 
   (d) The FCC may: 
     (1) Administer any examination element itself; 
     (2) Readminister any examination element previously administered by 
VEs, either itself or under the supervision of a VEC or VEs designated by 
the FCC; or 
     (3) Cancel the operator/primary station license of any licensee who 
fails to appear for readministration of an examination when directed by the 
FCC, or who does not successfully complete any required element that is 
readministered. In an instance of such cancellation, the person will be 
granted an operator/primary station license consistent with completed 
examination elements that have not been invalidated by not appearing for, 
or by failing, the examination upon readministration. 

S 97.521  VEC qualifications.
   No organization may serve as a VEC unless it has entered into a written 
agreement with the FCC.  The VEC must abide by the terms of the agreement.  
In order to be eligible to be a VEC, the entity must: 
   (a) Be an organization that exists for the purpose of furthering the 
amateur service; 
   (b) Be capable of serving as a VEC in at least the VEC region (see 
Appendix 2)  proposed; 
   (c) Agree to coordinate examinations for any class of amateur operator 
license;
   (d) Agree to assure that, for any examination, every examinee qualified 
under these rules is registered without regard to race, sex, religion, 
national origin or membership (or lack thereof)  in any amateur service 
organization; 
   (e) Not be engaged in the manufacture or distribution of equipment used 
in connection with amateur station transmissions, or in the preparation or 
distribution of any publication used in preparation for obtaining amateur 
licenses, unless a persuasive showing is made to the FCC that preventive 
measures have been taken to preclude any possible conflict of interest. 

S 97.523  Question pools. 
   All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each 
written examination element.  Each question pool must contain at least 10 
times the number of questions required for a single examination.  Each 
question pool must be published and made available to the public prior to 
its use for making a question set. Each question on each VEC question pool 
must be prepared by a VE holding the required FCC-issued operator license.  
See S 97.507(a) of this Part. 

S 97.525  Accrediting VEs. 
   (a) No VEC may accredit a person as a VE if: 
     (1) The person does not meet minimum VE statutory qualifications or 
minimum qualifications as prescribed by this Part; 
     (2) The FCC does not accept the voluntary and uncompensated services 
of the person; 
     (3) The VEC determines that the person is not competent to perform the 
VE functions; or
     (4) The VEC determines that questions of the person's integrity or 
honesty could compromise the examinations. 
   (b) Each VEC must seek a broad representation of amateur operators to be 
VEs.  No VEC may discriminate in accrediting VEs on the basis of race, sex, 
religion or national origin; nor on the basis of membership (or lack thereof)  
in an amateur service organization; nor on the basis of the person accepting 
or declining to accept reimbursement. 

S 97.527  Reimbursement for expenses. 
   (a) VEs and VECs may be reimbursed by examinees for out-of-pocket 
expenses incurred in preparing, processing, administering, or coordinating 
an examination for an amateur operator license. 
   (b) The maximum amount of reimbursement from any one examinee for any 
one examination at a particular session regardless of the number of 
examination elements taken must not exceed that announced by the FCC in a 
Public Notice.  (The basis for the maximum fee is $4.00 for 1984, adjusted 
annually each January 1 thereafter for changes in the Department of Labor 
Consumer Price Index.)  
   (c) Each VE and each VEC accepting reimbursement must maintain records 
of out-of-pocket expenses and reimbursements for each examination session.  
Written certifications must be filed with the FCC each year that all 
expenses for the period from January 1 to December 31 of the preceding year 
for which reimbursement was obtained were necessarily and prudently 
incurred. 
   (d) The expense and reimbursement records must be retained by each VE 
and each VEC for 3 years and be made available to the FCC upon request. 
   (e) Each VE must forward the certification by January 15 of each year to 
the coordinating VEC for the examinations for which reimbursement was 
received.  Each VEC must forward all such certifications and its own 
certification to the FCC on or before January 31 of each year. 
   (f) Each VEC must disaccredit any VE failing to provide the 
certification.  The VEC must advise the FCC on January 31 of each year of 
any VE that it has disaccredited for this reason. 

Appendix 1--Places Where the Amateur Service is Regulated by the FCC
    In ITU Region 2, the amateur service is regulated by the FCC within the 
territorial limits of the 50 United States, District of Columbia, Caribbean 
Insular areas [Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, United States Virgin Islands 
(50 islets and cays)  and Navassa Island], and Johnston Island (Islets 
East, Johnston, North and Sand)  and Midway Island (Islets Eastern and 
Sand)  in the Pacific Insular areas. 
   In ITU Region 3, the amateur service is regulated by the FCC within the 
Pacific Insular territorial limits of American Samoa (seven islands), Baker 
Island, Commonwealth of Northern Mariannas Islands, Guam Island, Howland 
Island, Jarvis Island, Kingman Reef, Kure Island, Palmyra Island (more than 
50 islets)  and Wake Island (Islets Peale, Wake and Wilkes) . 

Appendix 2--VEC Regions 
   1.  Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and 
       Vermont. 
   2.  New Jersey and New York.  
   3.  Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland and Pennsylvania.  
   4.  Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
       Tennessee and Virginia.  
   5.  Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas.  
   6.  California.  
   7.  Arizona, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington and 
       Wyoming.  
   8.  Michigan, Ohio and West Virginia.  
   9.  Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsin.  
   10. Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota 
       and South Dakota. 
   11. Alaska.  
   12  Caribbean Insular areas.  
   13. Hawaii and Pacific Insular areas.